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Table 1 Demographic variables

From: Lung fluid biomarkers for acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Biomarkers Diagnostic criteria for ARDS Study size Male (%) Age Mortality (%) Sample retrieved time Sample retrieved location Sample type (vol. of irrigation solution)
Studies related to diagnosis
 Armstrong [14] Procollagen peptide I AECC 66 66.7 64.65 48.5 (nsp.) Within 48 h of ICU admission Right middle lobe BALF (20 mL*6)
 Bersten [15] Total phospholipids Clinical criteria 21 np. np. np. Within 7 h of study entry np. LAF
 Calfee [16] Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 Clinical criteria 67 59.84 50.63 44.79 (hosp mort) Within 4 h of intubation np. PEF
 Chollet-Martin [18] Interleukin-8 LIS 29 np. 62.12 np. Within 72 h of ARDS diagosis np. ELF
Tumor necrosis factor-α         
Interleukin-6         
 Conner [20] Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 Clinical criteria+EF/plasma protein 27 np. np. np. Within 1 h of intubation np. PEF
 Delclaux [21] Albumin Clinical criteria 29 71.43 54 64.29 (nsp.) np. np. BALF (3*50mL)
 El Solh [22] Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 AECC 51 43.14 36.57 5.88 (hosp mort) Within 8 h of intubation Blind BAL PEF
 Prabhakaran [52] Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 AECC 51 58 50 47 (hosp mort) Within 12h of intubation np. PEF
 Song [56] Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 Clinical criteria 33 39 70 15 (28-day mort) When patients were suspected to have VAP np. BALF (20mL*3)
 Farjanel [23] Procollagen peptide III LIS 61 60.7 49.23 47.5 (hosp mort) 3 days after intubation A subsegmental of middle lobe BALF (3*50mL)
Procollagen peptide I         
Albumin         
 Geerts [25] Club cell protein AECC 26 73.1 51 np. Within 12 h of ARDS diagnosis Right middle lobe BALF (50mL*3)
Total protein         
 González-López [26] Interleukin-8 AECC 22 np. 50.1 31.8 (ICU mort) np. np. BALF (20mL*3)
Matrix metalloproteinases-9         
Procollagen peptide III         
Interleukin-6         
Vascular endothelial growth factor         
 Hallgren [27] Albumin Clinical criteria 40 66.67 46.87 25 (nsp.) np. Right middle lobe BALF (3*20mL)
 Hamacher [28] Tumor necrosis factor-α AECC 56 75 45.41 25.07 (hosp mort) np. np. BALF (nsp.)
Soluble TNF-α receptors II         
Transforming growth factor-β1         
 Idell [29] Total protein Clinical criteria 16 np. np. np. Within 96 h of ARDS diagnosis Right middle lobe/right lower lobe/lingula BALF (30mL*5)
 Jabaudon [60] Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products AECC 60 55 61 66.67 Within 24 h of disease onset. np. LAF
 Karagiorga [32] Total protein Clinical criteria 31 64.52 41.43 22.58 (nsp.) Within 72 h of ARDS diagnosis np. BALF (20mL*6)
Platelet activating factor-acetyl choline         
Total phospholipids         
Total phospholipases A2 activity         
 Keane [33] Interleukin-8 AECC 9 np. np. np. np. np. BALF (nsp.)
Procollagen peptide III         
Procollagen peptide I         
 Kurdowska [36] Interleukin-8 LIS 26 np. np. 41.2 (nsp.) Upon ICU admission Right middle lobe BALF (60mL*3)
 Lanchou [37] Matrix metalloproteinases-9 AECC 21 47.6 54 33.3 (nsp.) Within 24 h of ARDS diagnosis Right middle lobe BALF (20mL*3)
Matrix metalloproteinases-2         
 Martin [44] Total protein AECC 69 68 45 56 (nsp.) Within 72 h of ARDS diagnosis Right middle lobe/lingula BALF (30mL*5)
 Martin [43] Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products AECC 69 59 53.9 46 (nsp.) np. np. BALF (nsp.)
 Medford [45] Vascular endothelial growth factor AECC 70 40 59.37 38.57 (28-day mort) With 72 h of intubation np. ELF
 Miller [46] Interleukin-8 AECC 35 np. 48.54 np. Within 30 min of intubation np. PEF
 Nakos [49] Total protein AECC 21 76.2 61 np. Within 24 h of intubation Right middle lobe/lingula. BALF (20mL*6)
Albumin         
Platelet activating factor-acetyl choline         
Total phospholipids         
 Nakos [48] Total protein AECC 19 66.67 45 33.33 (nsp.) Within 12 h of intubation np. BALF (20mL*6)
Albumin         
Platelet activating factor-acetyl choline         
Total phospholipids         
 Nakos [47] Platelet activating factor-acetyl choline AECC 31 29 55.54 32.2 (ICU mort) Upon ARDS diagnosis np. BALF (20mL*6)
Total phospholipases A2 activity         
 Park [51] Tumor necrosis factor-α AECC 54 59.1 44.67 20.1 (nsp.) Within 24 h of ARDS diagnosis Right middle lobe/lingula BALF (30mL*5)
Soluble TNF-α receptors II         
Interleukin-1β         
Interleukin-6         
 Pugin [53] Interleukin-8 AECC 31 54.84 48.87 57.65 (nsp.) np. blind BAL PEF
Matrix metalloproteinases-2         
Procollagen peptide III         
 Ricou [55] Interleukin-6 Clinical criteria+LIS 24 79.2 50.5 33.3 (nsp.) Within 24 h of ARDS diagnosis np. BALF (nsp.)
 Stern [57] Procollagen peptide III AECC 25 64 67.08 60 (30-day mort) Within 72 h of ARDS diagnosis The abnormal area on the chest radiography BALF (20mL*6)
Albumin         
Hepatic growth factor         
 Uchida [58] Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products AECC 33 57.67 43 51.33 (hosp mort) np. np. PEF
Studies related to mortality
 Adamzik [12] Tumor necrosis actor-α AECC 47 68.09 44.53 36.17 (30-day mort) Within 24 h of ICU admission np. BALF (40mL*4)
Total protein         
Interleukin-6         
Interleukin-2         
Interleukin-1β         
Interleukin-10         
 Clark [19] Procollagen peptide III AECC 117 64.1 42.78 41 (hosp mort) Within 72h of ARDS diagosis Right middle lobe/lingula BALF (30mL*5)
 Frenzel [24] Interleukin-6 AECC 46 60.9 62 45.7 (28-day mort) Within 96h of intubation Right middle lobe/lingula BALF (20mL*5)
Interleukin-8         
Tumor necrosis factor-α         
Interleukin-1β         
Interleukin-10         
 Kondo [34] Kerbs von Lungren-6 AECC 32 84.38 70.1 31.3 (hosp mort) Within 24 h of ARDS diagnosis Right middle lobe ELF
 Lee [38] Interleukin-8 AECC 31 51.6 54.5 51.6 (28-day mortality) Within 48 h of ARDS diagnosis Right middle lobe/lingular BALF (30mL*5)
 Lin [41] Interleukin-6 AECC 39 69.2 68 43.6 (hosp mort) Within 24h of ARDS diagnosis Right middle lobe/lingula BALF (20mL*6)
Interleukin-8         
 Nathani [50] Kerbs von Lungren-6 AECC 42 57.1 60.13 np. Upon study entry Middle lobe BALF (50mL*3)
 Ishizaka [30] Kerbs von Lungren-6 AECC 38 77% 68 32 (hosp mort) Upon onset of ARDS Right middle lobe ELF
Studies related to diagnosis and mortality
 Agouridakis [13] Interleukin-2 AECC 34 74.42 47.79 27.9 (nsp.) Within 2h of ICU admission np. BALF (nsp.)
 Chesnutt [17] Procollagen peptide III AECC+EF/plasma protein 44 47.73 56.25 63.64 (hosp mort) Within 1h of intubation np. PEF
 Jorens [31] Club cell protein Fowler+LIS 35 88.6 55 42.9 (nsp.) Within 12 h of ARDS diagnosis Right middle lobe BALF (50mL*3)
 Kropski [35] Club cell protein AECC+EF/plasma protein 32 46.9 48 56.5 (nsp.) Within 24 h of intubation np. PEF
 Lee [39] IL-8 Clinical criteria 112 78.6 66.5 77.3 (nsp) With 24h of ICU admission The most abnormal area on the chest radiography/right middle lobe/lingula BALF (20mL*6)
Tumor necrosis factor-α         
Interleukin-1β         
Interleukin-6         
Interleukin-10         
 Lesur [40] Interleukin-2 AECC 33 36.4 51.52 24.2 (hosp mort) Within 72h of intubation Right middle lobe/lingula BALF (20mL*5)
 Marshall [42] Procollagen peptide III AECC 60 53.33 51.35 31.67 (nsp.) Within 24h of ARDS diagnosis np. BALF (nsp.)
 Quesnel [54] Interleukin-8 AECC 122 64.8 67 33.6 (28-day mort) np. np. BALF (20mL*6)
Procollagen peptide I         
Transforming growth factor-β1         
Hepatic growth factor         
 Ware [59] Vascular endothelial growth factor AECC 102 62.8 49 60 (nsp.) np. np. PEF
  1. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, AECC American-European Consensus Conference, EF edema fluid, LIS lung injury score, np not provided, nsp not specific, mort mortality, hosp mort hospital mortality, ICU intensive care unit, BALF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, LAF lung aspirational fluid, ELF epithelial lining fluid, PEF pulmonary edema fluid