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Table 2 Characteristics of the population

From: Increased dosing regimens of piperacillin-tazobactam are needed to avoid subtherapeutic exposure in critically ill patients with augmented renal clearance

Variable Overall population N = 35
Demographic data
 - Age (years) 48 [37–57]
 - Male sex 31 (89)
 - BMI (kg/m2) 25 [22–29]
Admission
 - Polytrauma 30 (86)
 - Non-traumatic surgery 5 (14)
SAPS II 42 [34–51]
Presumed/confirmed site of infection
 - Pulmonary infection 31 (89)
 - Intra-abdominal infection 3 (9)
 - Intravascular-catheter-related infection 1 (3)
Bacteremia 2 (6)
Use of vasopressors 12 (34)
Modified SOFA score* 3 [1–6]
CLCr the day of therapeutic drug monitoring 166 [159–191]
Antimicrobial therapy
 - Duration of antibiotic therapy before TDM 2 [1–3]
 - Association with aminoglycoside or quinolone 8 (23)
 - De-escalation 9 (26)
 - Total duration of antimicrobial therapy (days) 7 [5–7]
Type of pathogen
 - Enterobacteriaceae 33 (94)
 - Staphylococcus spp. 18 (51)
 - Haemophilus influenzae 8 (23)
 - Non-fermenting GNB 3 (9)
 - Other 3 (9)
Polymicrobial infection 20 (57)
Non-documented infection 1 (3)
PK/PD targets
 - Piperacillin unbound concentrations (mg/L) 36.4 [27.7–44.3]
  Empirical underdosing for piperacillin 0 (0)
  Excessive dosing for piperacillin 0 (0)
 - Tazobactam unbound concentrations (mg/L) 4.55 [3.57–5.88]
  Empirical underdosing for tazobactam 1 (3)
 - PIP/TAZ ratio 9.1 [6.9–11.1]
Clinical outcomes
 - Therapeutic failure before end of treatment 2 (6)
 - Relapse after end of treatment 1 (3)
Secondary resistance to PTZ 3 (9)
MV duration (days) 14 [4–26]
ICU length of stay (days) 22 [14–37]
ICU mortality 0 (0)
  1. Results expressed as median [25–75 interquartile] and numbers (percentage). Therapeutic failure was defined as an impaired response (persistent or recurrent fever, organ dysfunction, clinical and biological symptoms of the initial infection) with the need for escalating empirical antimicrobial therapy. Relapse was defined by a recurrent infection within 15 days after completing antibiotic therapy with at least one of the initial causative bacterial strains growing at a significant concentration from a second sample
  2. *Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score, without neurologic and renal components