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Table 2 Study outcomes

From: Enteral versus intravenous approach for the sedation of critically ill patients: a randomized and controlled trial

  Group IV
(N = 165)
Group EN
(N = 174)
P value
Percentage of shifts at target RASS = 0, median [IQR] 82.9 [61.3–100] 93.3 [70.8–100] < 0.01
Percentage of shifts at observed RASS = 0/− 1, median [IQR] 57.9 [33.3–77.8] 60.1 [33.3–83.7] 0.53
Main outcome
 Percentage of shifts at RASS observed = target ±1, median [IQR] 94.4 [77.8–100] 89.8 [74.1–100] 0.20
Secondary outcomes
Percentage of adequate sedation, as judged by nurses, median [IQR] 92.4 [80.9–100] 89.7 [76.2–100] 0.11
Percentage of shifts with protocol violation, median [IQR] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–24.1] < 0.01
Patients with protocol violation, n (%) 7 (4.2) 81 (46.6) < 0.01
Coma-free days 27 [19–28] 27 [18–28] 0.80
Delirium-free days 27 [19–28] 27 [15–28] 0.40
Coma and delirium-free days 25 [11–28] 25 [10–28] 0.61
Ventilator-free days 21 [3–27] 22 [2–26] 0.89
Length of ICU stay 10 [6–18] 10 [6–18] 0.75
Mortality
 In ICU, n (%) 41 (24.8) 45 (25.9) 0.90
 In hospital, n (%) 54 (32.7) 62 (35.6) 0.65
 One year, n (%) 68 (43.9) 71 (43.0) 0.82
Daily cost for planned sedatives, €/ventday 1.64 [0.15–4.78] 0.38 [0.22–0.60] < 0.01
Daily cost for unplanned sedatives, €/ventday 0 [0–0] 0.16 [0–2.15] < 0.01
Daily cost for all neuroactive drugs, €/ventday 4.15 [1.20–20.19] 2.39 [0.75–9.78] 0.01
Self-removal of ET tube, n (%) 4 (2.4) 14 (8.1) 0.03
Need to replace ET tube, n (%) 3 (1.8) 10 (5.7) 0.09
Self-removal of other invasive tools, n (%) 21 (12.7) 29 (16.7) 0.36
Unscheduled neurological tests, n (%) 30 (18.2) 33 (19.0) 0.89
  1. Abbreviations: IV intravenous, EN enteral, RASS Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, ICU Intensive Care Unit, ventday day with mechanical ventilation, ET endotracheal