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Table 1 Patient demographics

From: Transfusion requirements after head trauma: a randomized feasibility controlled trial

Characteristics Total (44) Liberal (21) Restrictive (23) p value
Age, years 35 ± 13 33 ± 11 36 ± 15 0.34
Male 40 (81) 20 (95) 20 (87) 0.61
GCS at hospital admission 4 [3–7] 4 [3–7] 5 [3–7] 0.90
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 120 ± 24 118 ± 20 122 ± 28 0.64
Pulse rate, bpm 90 ± 25 96 ± 28 84 ± 20 0.10
Pupil alteration (one or both) 20 (46) 7 (33) 13 (59) 0.09
Patients transfused RBC before randomization 24 (55) 9 (43) 15 (65) 0.14
RBC units per patient transfused before randomization 4.4 ± 6.2 3.1 ± 5.2 5.6 ± 6.9 0.24
Patients transfused other blood products before randomization 4 (10) 0 4 (17) 0.11
Brain CT
 Compressed cisterns 35 (81) 17 (85) 18 (78) 0.70
 Midline deviation ≥ 5 mm 26 (59) 10 (48) 16 (70) 0.14
 Diffuse axonal lesion 14 (33) 9 (45) 5 (22) 0.10
 Subarachnoid hemorrhage 22 (50) 13 (62) 9 (39) 0.13
 Intracranial hematoma 35 (80) 17 (81) 18 (78) 0.82
Neurosurgical intervention
 None 11 (25) 5 (24) 6 (26) 0.86
 Epidural hematoma drainage 6 (14) 4 (19) 2 (9) 0.40
 Subdural hematoma drainage 5 (11) 1 (5) 4 (17) 0.35
 Intracerebral hemorrhage drainage 2 (5) 1 (5) 1 (4) 1.00
 Decompressive craniectomy 17 (39) 7 (33) 10 (44) 0.49
 Other 5 (11) 3 (14) 2 (9) 0.66
Associated trauma lesions
 Face 31 (70) 16 (76) 15 (65) 0.43
 Neck 8 (18) 6 (29) 2 (9) 0.13
 Thorax 21 (48) 11 (52) 10 (44) 0.55
 Abdomen 7 (16) 2 (10) 5 (22) 0.42
 Pelvis and limbs 22 (50) 12 (57) 10 (44) 0.36
 Spine 5 (11) 3 (14) 2 (9) 0.66
Mechanism of injury 0.66
 Fall 17 (37) 7 (33) 10 (44)  
 Motorcycle crash 14 (32) 6 (29) 8 (35)  
 Run over 5 (11) 3 (14) 2 (9)  
 Physical aggression 3 (7) 1 (5) 2 (9)  
 Car/bus crash 4 (9) 3 (14) 1 (4)  
 Other 1 (2) 0 0  
Pre-hospital transportation 0.638
 EMS ambulance 22 (52) 12 (57) 10 (44)  
 EMS helicopter 19 (43) 8 (38) 11 (48)  
 Other 3 (2.4) 1 (5) 2 (9)  
Prognostic scores
 SAPS3 at ICU admission 56 ± 13 55 ± 12 57 ± 12 0.49
 CRASH 14-day death risk 40 ± 18 39 ± 18 41 ± 19 0.82
 CRASH 6-month unfavorable outcome risk 70 ± 19 70 ± 17 70 ± 22 0.91
 Injury severity score 29 ± 9 28 ± 9 31 ± 9 0.40
 IMPACT 49 (15) 47 (17) 52 (14) 0.29
Injury-to-randomization time, h 71 ± 38 75 ± 41 65 ± 34 0.35
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation, median [25th–75th percentiles] or number (percentage)
  2. GCS Glasgow Come Scale, RBC red blood cells, EMS Emergency Medical Service, CT computer tomograph, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, ICU, Intensive care unit, CRASH Corticoid Randomization After Significant Head injury Score, IMPACT International Mission for Prognosis And Clinical Trial Score