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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population according to the occurrence of sepsis-associated brain dysfunction

From: Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with brain dysfunction in patients with sepsis

  All (N = 100) SABD (n = 57) Non-SABD (n = 43) p Value
Age, years 63 [52–72] 66 [52–75] 61 [53–68] 0.14
Male sex, n (%) 72 (72) 40 (70) 36 (84) 0.16
APACHE II score on admission 21 [15–26] 25 [18–29] 18 [13–24] < 0.01
ICU LOS, days 7 [4–13] 9 [16–5] 6 [4–10] 0.03
Alive at ICU discharge, n (%) 76 (76) 36 (63) 40 (93) < 0.01
Comorbidities
 CKD, n (%) 10 (10) 7 (12) 3 (7) 0.51
 Vascular disease, n (%) 20 (20) 17 (30) 3 (7) < 0.01
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 23 (23) 12 (21) 10 (23) 0.81
 Smoking, n (%) 19 (19) 8 (14) 11 (26) 0.20
 Arterial hypertension, n (%) 45 (45) 23 (40) 21 (49) 0.42
At time of cerebral autoregulation assessment
 Sedation, n (%) 48 (48) 31 (54) 17 (40) 0.16
 Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 61 (61) 42 (74) 19 (44) < 0.01
 NMBA, n (%) 14 (14) 6 (11) 8 (19) 0.26
 Vasopressors, n (%) 74 (74) 46 (81) 28 (65) 0.11
 Norepinephrine, μg/min 0.17 [0–0.75] 0.33 [0.07–101] 0.13 [0.0–0.40] 0.44
 Dobutamine, μg/kg/min 3 [2.5–5] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0.88
 MAP, mmHg 76 [67–86] 77 [59–86] 75 [66–86] 0.50
 Heart rate, beats/min 96 [80–108] 98 [80–112] 95 [80–107] 0.09
 Temperature, °C 37 [36.5–38.7] 36.9 [36.5–37.2] 37.0 [36.5–38.0] 0.23
 FiO2 0.40 [0.30–0.50] 0.40 [0.30–0.50] 0.36 [0.28–0.40] 0.29
 PEEP, cmH2O 5 [0–10] 6 [0–10] 0 [0–10] 0.05
 PaO2, mmHg 79 [70–90] 78 [70–87] 80 [72–95] 0.45
 PaCO2, mmHg 37 [32–43] 37 [33–44] 37 [32–43] 0.68
 pH 7.40 [7.34–7.45] 7.37 [7.32–7.44] 7.43 [7.38–7.45] 0.39
 ScvO2, % 69 [64–76] 67 [62–76] 70 [65–77] 0.40
 Lactate, mEq/L 1.9 [1.3–2.7] 2 [1.3–3.1] 1.7 [1.2–2.4] 0.02
 C-reactive protein, mg/L 260 [150–340] 260 [150–340] 260 [190–350] 0.63
 Haemoglobin, mg/dl 9.5 [8.3–11.4] 10 [8.4–12] 9.6 [8.5–12] 0.63
 Pro-ET-1, pg/ml 19 [14–36] 20 [15–48] 15 [8–31] 0.17
 Mxa 0.29 [0.05–0.62] 0.47 [0.21–0.64] 0.23 [− 0.12–0.52] < 0.01
 Altered CAR, n (%) 50 (50) 34 (60) 27 (37) 0.04
Primary site of infection, n (%)
 Abdominal 46 (46) 30 (53) 16 (37) 0.16
 Respiratory 28 (28) 14 (25) 14 (33) 0.50
 Urinary tract 9 (9) 6 (11) 3 (7) 0.73
 Soft tissue 8 (8) 2 (4) 6 (14) 0.07
 Blood/CVC 4 (4) 3 (5) 1 (2) 0.63
 Unknown 6 (6) 3 (5) 3 (7) 1
Pathogena, n (%)
 GNB 45 (45) 23 (40) 22 (51) 0.32
 GPB 35 (35) 23 (40) 12 (28) 0.21
 Fungi 10 (10) 6 (11) 4 (9) 1
 Virus/other 5 (5) 2 (4) 3 (7) 0.58
 Unknown 23 (23) 13 (23) 10 (23) 1
  1. Abbreviations: APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, CAR Cerebral autoregulation, CKD Chronic kidney disease, CVC Central venous catheter, FiO2 Fraction of inspired oxygen, GNB Gram-negative bacteria, GNP Gram-positive bacteria, ICU LOS Intensive care unit length of stay, MAP Mean arterial pressure, Mxa Mean flow index, NMBA Neuromuscular blocking agent, PaCO2 Arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, PaO2 Arterial oxygen partial pressure, PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure, ScvO2 Central venous haemoglobin oxygen saturation
  2. a Total percentage can exceed 100 because of multiorganism infections
  3. Data are expressed as count (%) or median [IQR]