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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of patients with non-cardiovascular disease

From: Permissive fluid volume in adult patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment

Variables CFB quartiles Total P for trend
Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4
Number of patients 79 79 80 79 317  
Age (yr) 53.2 ± 16.2 56.1 ± 14.9 57.2 ± 15.0 56.3 ± 16.8 55.7 ± 15.7 0.192
Sex (male, %) 55 (69.6) 53 (67.1) 52 (65.0) 47 (59.5) 207 (65.3) 0.176
DM (n, %) 19 (24.1) 17 (21.5) 15 (18.8) 16 (20.3) 67 (21.1) 0.490
Hypertension (n, %) 21 (26.6) 13 (16.5) 14 (17.5) 21 (26.6) 69 (21.8) 0.962
Malignancy (n, %) 25 (31.6) 22 (27.8) 22 (27.5) 24 (30.4) 93 (29.3) 0.856
Charlson comorbidity index 2.1 ± 2.2 1.9 ± 2.0 1.6 ± 1.7 1.6 ± .2.0 1.8 ± 2.0 0.076
Weight (kg) 63.8 ± 15.8 63.1 ± 12.8 64.1 ± 16.1 61.0 ± 12.2 63.0 ± 14.3 0.300
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.9 ± 4.4 23.4 ± 4.5 23.6 ± 5.1 22.7 ± 3.9 23.2 ± 4.5 0.900
Body surface area (m2) 1.7 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.2 0.151
CFB (ml/kg)* − 3.9 (− 19.8–6.8) 34.5 (25.6–42.7) 72.5 (60.2–87.5) 194.7 (147.8–265.5) 53.5 (16.9–106.7) < 0.001
Daily fluid balance (ml/kg/d)*,† 4.3 (− 2.7–12.9) 12.8 (7.1–19.7) 21.1 (11.2–35.9) 54.0 (29.5–101.8) 15.9 (7.1–36.4) < 0.001
Cumulative input (ml/kg)* 195.5 (165.3–264.7) 206.4 (166.2–263.6) 246.2 (192.4–292.3) 338.6 (271.8–422.5) 231.8 (180.8–298.8) < 0.001
Cumulative total output (ml/kg) * 206.6 (163.9–274.9) 166.2 (132.2–221.7) 173.7 (126.7–217.0) 127.7 (92.0–212.9) 183.2 (130.4–233.9) < 0.001
Cumulative urine output (ml/kg) * 107.2 (8.1–180.9) 98.3 (13.2–163.5) 75.7 (15.6–127.8) 42.7 (17.3–109.8) 83.9 (14.0–159.6) 0.055
ICU LOS before ECMO (days)* 2.5 (0–6) 2 (1–4) 1 (0–5) 1 (0–5) 2 (0–5) 0.636
Daily fluid balance before ECMO (ml/kg/d)*,‡ 6.8 (− 4.8–18.2) 17.0 (7.6–35.6) 12.7 (4.0–45.1) 22.0 (4.0–49.8) 12.2 (3.9–32.5) < 0.001
ECMO cause (n, %)
 Lung transplant 17 (21.5) 14 (17.9) 12 (15.2) 5 (6.3) 48 (15.2) 0.081
 ARDS 17 (21.5) 19 (24.4) 14 (17.7) 25 (31.6) 75 (23.8)
 Other pulmonary 13 (16.5) 21 (26.9) 17 (21.5) 27 (34.2) 78 (24.8)
 Others 32 (40.5) 25 (31.6) 37 (46.3) 22 (27.8) 116 (36.6)
ECMO VA mode (n, %) 18 (22.7) 12 (15.2) 22 (27.5) 21 (26.6) 73 (23.0) 0.321
ECMO settings       
 Blood flow rate (L/min) 3.1 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 0.8 0.661
 Blood flow rate (L/min/m2) 1.8 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.5 0.965
 FsO2 (%) 91.1 ± 13.7 92.0 ± 13.7 90.7 ± 13.6 85.0 ± 16.6 89.7 ± 14.6 0.008
 ECMO DO2I (ml/min/m2) 297.3 ± 87.9 302.6 ± 93.8 281.2 ± 89.5 306.0 ± 115.2 297.0 ± 97.6 0.889
ECMO duration (days)* 8 (4–16) 8 (3–14) 8 (3–12) 6 (3–12) 8 (3–13) 0.119
Mechanical ventilation (n, %) 77 (97.5) 77 (97.5) 78 (97.5) 78 (98.7) 310 (97.8) 0.785
Days of ventilator before ECMO (days)* 3 (1–4) 2 (2–3) 2 (0–3) 3 (1–5) 3 (1–3) 0.377
WBC (×103/μl) 11.6 ± 6.6 12.8 ± 7.2 12.1 ± 7.9 14.0 ± 8.7 12.6 ± 7.6 0.108
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 10.8 ± 2.0 11.1 ± 2.5 10.4 ± 1.9 10.3 ± 2.5 10.7 ± 2.2 0.042
SaO2 (%)* 94.0 (88.2–98.8) 94.4 (90.1–98.0) 93.2 (80.7–98.5) 95.3 (89.3–99.0) 94.4 (88.0–98.7) 0.707
BUN (mg/dl) 31.2 ± 20.6 26.3 ± 16.9 27.2 ± 14.8 29.5 ± 25.4 28.5 ± 19.9 0.684
Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.4 ± 1.0 1.2 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.9 1.1 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.9 0.305
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 89.9 ± 62.7 94.3 ± 61.0 77.7 ± 54.8 90.6 ± 51.4 88.1 ± 57.7 0.622
Albumin (g/dl) 2.7 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.6 0.026
Bilirubin (mg/dl) 2.9 ± 3.7 3.4 ± 5.4 3.0 ± 3.8 1.9 ± 2.0 2.8 ± 3.9 0.108
CRP (mg/dl) * 69.7 (28.1–155.2) 74.7 (32.2–141.6) 85.0 (17.9–199.1) 99.2 (22.0–170.8) 81.2 (23.7–176.8) 0.735
APACHE II score 18.9 ± 7.3 20.0 ± 7.3 19.6 ± 7.7 24.1 ± 8.7 20.7 ± 8.0 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, CFB Cumulative fluid balance for 3 days from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation, CRP C-reactive protein, CVD Cardiovascular disease, DM Diabetes mellitus, ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, FsO2 Fraction of sweep gas inlet oxygen supplied to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, SaO2 Oxygen saturation, VA Venoarterial access, WBC White blood cell
  2. *Data are expressed as median and IQR and compared by Jonckheere-Terpstra test
  3. Fluid balance during entire ECMO treatment
  4. During 3 days from ECMO commencement
  5. Daily fluid balance during ICU admission before ECMO commencement