Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with cardiovascular disease

From: Permissive fluid volume in adult patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment

Variables CFB quartiles Total P for trend
Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4
Number of patients 101 102 102 101 406  
Age (yr) 55.0 ± 17.0 56.5 ± 18.0 58.9 ± 19.3 63.1 ± 15.5 58.4 ± 17.7 0.001
Sex (male, %) 74 (73.3) 73 (71.6) 71 (69.6) 59 (58.4) 277 (68.2) 0.025
DM (n, %) 38 (37.6) 36 (35.3) 30 (29.4) 30 (29.7) 134 (33.0) 0.156
Hypertension (n, %) 48 (47.5) 41 (40.2) 35 (34.3) 45 (44.6) 169 (41.6) 0.499
Malignancy (n, %) 6 (5.9) 13 (12.7) 9 (8.8) 7 (6.9) 35 (8.6) 0.937
Charlson comorbidity index 2.1 ± 2.1 2.2 ± 2.0 1.8 ± 1.7 1.1 ± 1.5 1.8 ± 1.9 < 0.001
Weight (kg) 67.6 ± 11.2 66.0 ± 12.9 63.9 ± 12.1 61.4 ± 10.9 64.7 ± 12.0 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.2 ± 3.3 23.7 ± 3.8 23.4 ± 3.6 23.4 ± 3.3 23.7 ± 3.5 0.085
Body surface area (m2) 1.7 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.2 < 0.001
CFB (ml/kg)* − 4.8 (− 25.2–9.6) 38.2 (27.6–51.4) 109.7 (77.4–137.3) 222.9 (194.6–272.7) 64.7 (20.1–161.7) < 0.001
Daily fluid balance (ml/kg/d)*,† 2.3 (− 5.0 to 8.9) 13.1 (6.6–27.7) 37.8 (23.8–67.0) 108.4 (63.4–180.6) 26.2 (6.7–68.6) < 0.001
Cumulative input (ml/kg)* 165.2 (124.7–216.7) 191.6 (168.3–241.8) 248.6 (213.4–280.2) 371.3 (293.3–482.3) 214.5 (157.6–267.2) < 0.001
Cumulative total output (ml/kg)* 182.0 (138.2–229.7) 149.7 (112.7–201.4) 138.6 (113.6–182.0) 136.8 (91.1–226.3) 153.1 (115.6–201.4) < 0.001
Cumulative urine output (ml/kg)* 136.0 (68.5–182.5) 100.5 (37.1–143.9) 59.8 (21.7–119.8) 27.1 (10.0–66.6) 95.8 (31.1–150.6) < 0.001
ICU LOS before ECMO (days)* 1 (0–1) 1 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 1 (0–1) < 0.001
Daily fluid balance before ECMO (ml/kg/d)*,‡ 1.4 (− 22.4–19.9) 11.6 (− 15.7–24.4) 11.9 (− 0.6–37.9) − 0.7 (− 6.2–7.4) 3.1 (− 8.3–21.6) 0.834
ECMO cause (n, %)
 Heart transplant 5 (5.0) 9 (8.8) 2 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 16 (3.9) 0.357
 Other cardiotomy 22 (21.8) 23 (22.5) 20 (19.6) 21 (20.8) 86 (21.2)
 Nonoperative CVD 74 (73.3) 70 (68.6) 80 (78.4) 80 (79.2) 304 (74.9)
ECMO VA mode (n, %) 100 (99.0) 98 (96.1) 99 (97.1) 101 (100.0) 398 (98.0) 0.530
ECMO settings
 Blood flow rate (L/min) 2.8 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 0.9 0.006
 Blood flow rate (L/min/m2) 1.6 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.6 1.9 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.5 < 0.001
 FsO2 (%) 89.4 ± 13.8 87.9 ± 15.1 85.3 ± 15.8 81.3 ± 17.1 85.9 ± 15.7 < 0.001
 ECMO DO2I (ml/min/m2) 272.4 ± 86.7 304.4 ± 101.6 311.9 ± 134.6 344.8 ± 134.9 309.3 ± 119.2 < 0.001
ECMO duration (days)* 4 (2–6) 3 (2–7) 4 (2–7) 3 (2–6) 3 (2–6) 0.231
Mechanical ventilation (n, %) 90 (89.2) 100 (98.5) 97 (95.3) 100 (98.9) 387 (95.3) 0.015
Days of ventilator before ECMO (days)* 1 (0–1) 1 (0–1) 1 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 1 (0–1) 0.155
WBC (× 103/μl) 12.8 ± 6.0 13.8 ± 6.9 14.6 ± 8.5 13.6 ± 6.8 13.7 ± 7.1 0.293
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 11.1 ± 2.4 11.4 ± 2.4 11.0 ± 2.3 10.3 ± 2.4 11.0 ± 2.4 0.008
SaO2 (%)* 98.2 (93.3–99.3) 97.7 (95.4–98.9) 99.3 (97.3–99.8) 99.6 (96.8–99.9) 98.8 (96.2–99.8) 0.001
BUN (mg/dl) 27.3 ± 16.0 27.1 ± 15.2 26.5 ± 11.0 23.6 ± 12.9 26.1 ± 14.0 0.054
Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.5 ± 0.9 1.5 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.7 0.105
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 60.7 ± 29.5 58.2 ± 26.8 54.6 ± 22.9 58.2 ± 25.8 57.9 ± 26.4 0.348
Albumin (g/dl) 3.0 ± 0.5 2.9 ± 0.6 2.7 ± 0.7 2.6 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.7 < 0.001
Bilirubin (mg/dl) 1.8 ± 1.7 2.4 ± 2.6 1.8 ± 1.9 1.2 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.9 0.007
CRP (mg/dl)* 32.7 (12.8–82.6) 25.6 (6.4–62.6) 17.9 (4.1–61.9) 9.7 (3.0–47.0) 22.7 (3.6–62.3) 0.001
APACHE II score 23.1 ± 9.7 23.9 ± 8.3 23.7 ± 10.4 24.7 ± 9.7 23.8 ± 9.6 0.274
  1. Abbreviations: APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, CFB Cumulative fluid balance for 3 days from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation, CRP C-reactive protein, CVD Cardiovascular disease, DM Diabetes mellitus, ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, FsO2 Fraction of sweep gas inlet oxygen supplied to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, SaO2 Oxygen saturation, VA Venoarterial access, WBC White blood cell
  2. *Data are expressed as median and IQR and compared by Jonckheere-Terpstra test
  3. Fluid balance during entire ECMO treatment
  4. During 3 days from ECMO commencement
  5. Daily fluid balance during ICU admission before ECMO commencement