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Table 2 Summary of main outcomes of all included studies

From: Systematic review of incretin therapy during peri-operative and intensive care

Author, year Main outcome Result
Meier, 2004 [29] GLP-1 IV lowered mean glucose levels +
Sokos, 2007 [34] GLP-1 IV reduced peri-operative glucose levels +
Müssig, 2008 [31] GLP-1 IV reduced insulin administration with comparable glycaemic control +
Deane, 2009 [21] GLP-1 IV lowered mean post-prandial glucose levels +
Deane, 2010 [22] GLP-1 IV lowered mean post-prandial glucose levels +
Deane, 2011 [23] GLP-1 IV lowered mean post-prandial glucose levels +
Galiatsatos, 2014 [24] GLP-1 IV did not lower mean glucose levels
Kohl, 2014 [27] GLP-1 IV lowered mean glucose levels +
Miller, 2017 [30] GLP-1 IV reduced intestinal glucose absorption +
Kar, 2015 [26] GIP IV did not lower mean glucose levels
Lee, 2013 [28] GIP IV did not lower mean glucose levels
Polderman, 2018 [18] Liraglutide SC reduced post-operative glucose levels +
Holmberg, 2014 [25] Exenatide IV did not lower post-operative cardiac enzymes
Besch, 2017 [19] Exenatide IV did not increase number of patient that spend > 50% in target range
Lipš, 2017 [17] Exenatide IV did not improve left ventricular ejection fraction
Garg, 2017 [35] Saxagliptin PO resulted in similar glucose levels compared with basal bolus insulin +
Pasquel, 2017 [32] Sitagliptin PO as adjunct to basal insulin resulted in similar glucose levels compared with bolus insulin +
Umpierrez, 2014 [33] Sitagliptin PO resulted in similar glucose levels compared with basal bolus insulin
Brackbill, 2012 [20] Sitagliptin PO did not lower the mean postoperative glucose levels
  1. Abbreviations: GIP Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide-1, IV Intravenously, PO By mouth, SC Subcutaneous
  2. + = study positive for primary outcome, − = study negative for primary outcome