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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Systematic review of incretin therapy during peri-operative and intensive care

Author, year Participants, setting, n DM, n (%) Intervention duration Intervention, dose, n Comparator, n Standard glycaemic therapy Outcome parameters
Besch, 2017 [19] CABG, OR + ICU
n = 104
22 (21%) 48 h Exenatide IV
25 ng/min
n = 53
Standard glycaemic therapy
n = 51
Continuous insulin IV + bolus regimen Glycaemia
Insulin administration, complications, LoS
Brackbill, 2012 [20] CABG, ward,
n = 62
62 (100%) 4 d Sitagliptin PO
100 mg q.d.
n = 30
Placebo
n = 32
Basal bolus insulin SC regimen Glycaemia
LoS
Deane, 2009 [21] Mechanically ventilated, ICU
n = 7
0 (0%) 240 min GLP-1 IV
1.2 pmol/kg/min
n = 7
Placebo
n = 7
None Glycaemia
Insulinaemia, Glucagon, GLP-1
Deane, 2010 [22] Mechanically ventilated, ICU
n = 25
0 (0%) 360 min GLP-1 IV
1.2 pmol/kg/min
n = 25
Placebo
n = 25
None Glycaemia
Gastric emptying, glucose absorption, Insulinaemia, Glucagon
Deane, 2011 [23] Mechanically ventilated, ICU
n = 11
11 (100%) 240 min GLP-1 IV
1.2 pmol/kg/min
n = 11
Placebo
n = 11
None Glycaemia
Insulinaemia, C-peptide, glucagon, FFA
Galiatsatos, 2014 [24] Surgical/burn, ICU
n = 18
9 (50%) 72 h GLP-1 IV
1.5 pmol/kg/min
n = 9
Saline
n = 9
Intensive insulin treatment protocol Glycaemia
Insulin administration, glucagon, C-peptide, CV medication
Garg, 2017 [35] In hospital, ward (74% surgical)
n = 66
66 (100%) 5 d Saxagliptin PO
5 mg q.d.
n = 33
Basal bolus insulin SC regimen
n = 33
Corrective insulin bolus regimen Glycaemia
Insulin administration, Treatment failure, LoS
Holmberg, 2014 [25] CABG, OR
n = 62
12 (19%) 390 min Exenatide IV
43 ng/min
n = 21
RIPC
n = 20 /
Placebo
n = 21
Unknown Cardiac enzymes
Complications, LoS
Kar, 2015 [26] Mechanically ventilated, ICU
n = 20
0 (0%) 300 min GIP IV
4 pmol/kg/min
n = 20
Placebo
n = 20
None Glycaemia
Gastric emptying, glucose absorption, insulinaemia
Kohl, 2014 [27] CABG, OR
n = 77
11 (14%) 72 h GLP-1 IV
1.5 pmol/kg/min
n = 37
Placebo
n = 40
Continuous insulin IV + bolus regimen Glycaemia
Insulinaemia, glucagon, GLP-1, cortisol, FFA.
Lee, 2013 [28] Mechanically ventilated, ICU
n = 20
0 (0%) 300 min GIP IV
4 pmol/kg/min
n = 20
Standard glycaemic therapy
n = 20
GLP-1 IV
1.2 pmol/kg/min
(300 min)
Glycaemia
Insulinaemia, glucagon, GLP-1, GIP,
Lipš, 2017 [17] CABG, OR
n = 38
26 (68%) 72 h Exenatide IV
20 ng/min
n = 19
Placebo
n = 19
Intensive insulin treatment protocol Glycaemia
Echocardiography, CV medications, complications
Meier, 2004 [29] Major surgery, ward
n = 8
100 (100%) 8 h GLP-1 IV
1.2 pmol/kg/min
n = 8
Placebo
n = 8
None Glycaemia
Insulinaemia, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1
Miller, 2017 [30] Mechanically ventilated, ICU
n = 12
0 (0%) 270 min GLP-1 IV
1.2 pmol/kg/min
n = 12
Placebo
n = 12
None Glycaemia
Glucose absorption
Müssig, 2008 [31] CABG, ICU
n = 20
100 (100%) 12 h GLP-1 IV
3.6 pmol/kg/min
n = 10
Continuous insulin IV
n = 10
Corrective insulin bolus regimen Glycaemia
Insulin administration, haemodynamics
Pasquel, 2017 [32] In hospital, ward (16% surgical)
n = 277
100 (100%) 10 d Sitagliptin PO
100 mg q.d.
n = 138
Bolus insulin regimen
n = 139
Basal (glargine) insulin regimen Glycaemia
Insulin administration, complications, treatment failure
Polderman, 2018 [18] Surgical,
OR
n = 150
100 (100%) 2 d Liraglutide SC
0.6 mg + 1.2 mg
n = 44
GIK infusion
n = 53/Bolus insulin algorithm
n = 53
Bolus insulin treatment algorithm Glycaemia
Insulin administration,
Potassium, nausea, complications
Sokos, 2007 [34] CABG, OR
n = 20
5 (25%) 60 h GLP-1 IV
1.5 pmol/kg/min
n = 10
Standard insulin therapy
n = 10
Standard insulin therapy Glycaemia
LVEF, haemodynamics
Umpierrez, 2014 [33] In hospital, ward (45% surgical)
n = 90
100 (100%) 10 d Sitagliptin PO
100 mg q.d.
n = 27 /
Sitagliptin + basal insulin
n = 29
Basal bolus insulin regimen
n = 26
Correction bolus insulin regimen Glycaemia
Insulin administration, complications, treatment failure
  1. Abbreviations: b.i.d. Twice per day, CABG Coronary artery bypass grafting, CV Cardiovascular, d Days, DM Diabetes mellitus, FFA Free fatty acids, GIK Glucose-insulin-potassium infusion, GIP Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide-1, h Hours, ICU Intensive care unit, IV Intravenously, LoS Length of stay, min Minutes, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, OR Operating room, PO By mouth, q.d Once per day, RIPC Remote ischaemic preconditioning, SC Subcutaneous
  2. All secondary outcomes are in italics