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Table 8 Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes grouped according to urinary cystatin C and AKI status

From: Subclinical acute kidney injury is associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill neonates and children

  uCysC(−)/ AKI(−) uCysC(+)/ AKI(−) uCysC(−)/ AKI(+) uCysC(+)/ AKI(+) P value
Number 301 (59.0) 130 (25.5) 43 (8.4) 36 (7.1) N/A
Body weight, kg 5.5 [3.0–12.0] 2.4 [1.5–5.0]* 10.0 [3.4–19.0]*# 5.0 [1.4–13.0]# <0.001
Male, n 184 (61.1) 68 (52.3) 28 (65.1) 24 (66.7) 0.216
Illness severitya, score 5 [2–7] 8 [5–10]* 7 [5–11]* 12 [8–16.5]*#& <0.001
MV, n 77 (25.6) 42 (32.3) 19 (44.2)* 24 (66.7)*# <0.001
MV duration, days 0 [0–0.38] 0 [0–1.10] 0 [0–3.96]* 3.16 [0–5.65]*#& <0.001
Severe AKIb, n 0 (0) 0 (0) 14 (32.6)*# 22 (61.1)*#& <0.001
ICU LOS, hours 121.0 [56.0–228.1] 336.0 [132.9–774.0]* 144.0 [63.0–288.0]# 236.0 [137.0–917.8]*& <0.001
Death, n 6 (2.0) 26 (20.0)* 4 (9.3)* 12 (33.3)*& <0.001c
  1. Values are median [interquartile range] or number (percentage). uCysC(−) indicates the absence of tubular injury, and uCysC(+) indicates the presence of tubular injury defined by the optimal cutoff value of the peak uCysC for predicting mortality (1260 ng/mg uCr)
  2. AKI acute kidney injury, ICU, intensive care unit, LOS length of stay, MV mechanical ventilation, uCysC urinary cystatin C, uCr urinary creatinine
  3. aIllness severity was assessed by the score for neonatal acute physiology in critically ill neonates and the pediatric risk of mortality III score in critically ill children
  4. bSevere AKI was defined as Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stages 2 and 3
  5. cP = 0.001, after adjustment for body weight, illness severity, MV, and severe AKI
  6. *P < 0.05 vs. uCysC(−)/AKI(−). #P < 0.05 vs. uCysC(+)/AKI(−). &P < 0.05 vs. uCysC(−)/AKI(+)