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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Evidence is stronger than you think: a meta-analysis of vitamin C use in patients with sepsis

StudyYearDesignnInclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaParticipant characteristicsDose of vitamin COutcomes reportedQuality assessment
Marik et al. [7]2017Retrospective before-after study94Primary diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock and a procalcitonin level ≥ 2 ng/mL< 18 years, pregnant, or with limitations of careMean age for treated group 58.3 years, 57% male; mean age for control group 62.2 years, 49% male1.5 g IV every 6 hHospital mortality, ICU-LOS, duration of vasopressors, RRT for AKI, reduction in serum procalcitonin and SOFA over the first 72 hNeither randomized nor blinded, although propensity-adjusted; protocol included intravenous hydrocortisone and thiamine, in addition to vitamin C
Fowler et al. [3]2014Prospective phase I trial24Diagnosis of severe sepsis< 18 years, pregnant, prisoners, cognitively impaired and unable to provide consent, or non-English speakersAge for treated group: 30–92 years, 56% male; age for control group: 54–68 years, 50% male50 mg/kg/day, or 200 mg/kg/dayVitamin C safety and tolerability, days on vasopressor, ventilator-free days, ICU-LOS, 28-day mortalityRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, but underpowered
Zabet et al. [6]2016Prospective clinical trial28Adult (18–65 years) with diagnosis of septic shock and required vasopressor drug to maintain MAP > 65 mmHg Mean age for treated group 64.14 years, 71% male; mean age for control group 63.71 years, 79% male25 mg/kg IV every 6 hVasopressor dose and duration, ICU-LOS, 28-day mortalityRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, but small sample size
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, ICU-LOS intensive care unit length of stay, IV intravenous, MAP mean arterial pressure, RRT renal replacement therapy, SOFA Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment