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Table 4 Clinical differences in ACLF 3 according to CLIF-C ACLF score

From: Validation of CLIF-C ACLF score to define a threshold for futility of intensive care support for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure

Parameters CLIF-C ACLF score < 70
n = 53
CLIF-C ACLF score ≥ 70
n = 15
p Value
Age, years 50 ± 11 58 ± 9 p < 0.001
Male sex, n (%) 33 (62%) 10 (67%) p = 0.76
Etiology of cirrhosis, n (%)    p = 0.52
ALD 28 (53%) 8 (53%)
Autoimmunea 8 (15%) 1 (7%)
Viral 5 (9%) 1 (7%)
Viral + ALD 3 (6%) 1 (7%)
NASH 1 (2%) 2 (13%)
Cryptogenic + others 8 (15) 2 (13%)
Precipitating event (infection/bleeding/both/unknown), n (%) 23/12/7/11 (43%/23%/13%/21%) 4/5/1/5 (27%/33%/7%/33%) p = 0.46
CLIF-C OF score 14 (13–15) 16 (15–17) p < 0.001
MELD 31.6 ± 8.7 38.1 ± 10.4 p = 0.02
SIRS score 2 (1–3) 3 (2–3) p = 0.04
WBC (109/L) 11 (6–17) 21 (15–24) p = 0.002
Bilirubin, mg/dl; μmol/L 10.5 (4.3–15.8); 180 (74–270) 12.5 (6.9–22.8); 214 (118–390) p = 0.43
Creatinine, mg/dl; μmol/L 1.7 (1.1–2.6); 150 (97–230) 2.4 (1.6–4.0); 212.2 (142–354) p = 0.15
Sodium, mmol/L 135 ± 8 136 ± 15 p = 0.90
Renal replacement, n (%) 28 (53%) 11 (73%) p = 0.16
Median number of organ failures 3 (3–3) 4 (3–5) p < 0.001
Type of organ failurea
 Liver failure, n (%) 23 (43%) 9 (60%) p = 0.255
 Renal failure, n (%) 35 (66%) 14 (93%) p = 0.038
 Cerebral failure, n (%) 16 (30%) 5 (33%) p = 0.816
 Coagulation failure, n (%) 31 (58%) 11 (73%) p = 0.296
 Circulatory failure, n (%) 33 (62%) 13 (87%) p = 0.074
 Respiratory failure, n (%) 35 (66%) 9 (60%) p = 0.666
  1. Abbreviations: ACLF Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure, ALD Alcoholic liver disease, CLIF European Foundation for the study of chronic liver failure, MELD Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, NASH Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, OF Organ failure, SIRS Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, WBC White blood cell
  2. Categorical variables are displayed in percent and continuous variables as mean ± SD (normally distributed data) and median (IQR) (nonparametric testing)
  3. aOrgan failures defined according to the CLIF-C OF score [2]