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Table 2 Presence and impact of frailty in patients seen by rapid response teams

From: The association of clinical frailty with outcomes of patients reviewed by rapid response teams: an international prospective observational cohort study

Variable Frailty level 1–4 Frailty level ≥ 5 p value
Count n = 672 (60%) n = 447 (40%)  
Age (years) 63 (18) 74 (15) p < 0.001
Male 263 (54%) 215 (48%) p = 0.051
On a medical service 390 (58%) 335 (75%) p < 0.001b
Patients per nurse
 1–4 203 (30%) 101 (23%) p = 0.0048b
 5–8 330 (50%) 248 (55%) p = 0.031b
 9–12 103 (15%) 69 (15%) p = 1.0
 13–17 27 (5%) 20 (5%) p = 0.716
  > 17 0 3 P = 0.060
Existing limitation in care 54 (8%) 156 (35%) p < 0.001b
Resolution of trigger 296 (44%) 192 (43%) p = 0.950
Repeat MET call 54 (8%) 40 (9%) p = 0.440
Median NEWS (IQR) 6 (4–9) 7 (5–9) p = 0.0047a
Mean qSOFA score (SD) 1.1 (.78) 1.4 (.82) p < 0.001a
On antibiotics following MET call 383 (57%) 273 (61%) p = 0.216
Antibiotics before MET call 370 (55%) 273 (61%) p = 0.081
ICU admission 242 (36%) 94 (21%) p < 0.001b
Mean MET to ICU interval (h) 10.0 6.7 p = 0.701
MET– > ICU less than 4 h. 181 (27%) 125 (28%) p = 0.892
Died within 24 h of MET call 24 (4%) 48 (11%) p < 0.001b
Full code status at time of death 5 (0.7%) 8 (1.8%) p = 0.153
Received CPR 6 (0.9%) 9 (2.0%) p = 0.119
New limitation in care 74 (11%) 116 (26%) p < 0.001b
Died within 30 days 144 (21%) 177 (40%) p < 0.001b
If alive, hospital-dependent at 30 days 139 (26%) 144 (32%) p < 0.001b
Died or hospital-dependent at 30 days 283 (42%) 321 (72%) p < 0.001b
  1. Patients seen by rapid response teams were assessed by the Dalhousie clinical frailty scale and analysed according to scores of 1–4 and ≥ 5; 14 of the 1133 patients in this study had missing frailty data and 15 had missing data on the nurse-to-patient ratio
  2. MET Medical emergency team, qSOFA quick sequential organ failure assessment, NEWS National Early Warning Score, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  3. aMann-Whitney U test
  4. bFisher’s exact test