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Table 3 Description of each covariate used for the propensity-score matching in the matched sample (n = 534)

From: Epidemiology and patterns of tracheostomy practice in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in ICUs across 50 countries

  Tracheostomy No tracheostomy Standardized differences of mean
Number (%) or mean ± sd Number (%) or mean ± sd
Number 267 267  
Age 58.4 ± 16.6 58.9 ± 17.9 0.03
Sex (male) 171 (64.0) 171 (64.0) 0.00
BMI 27.9 ± 7.8 27.9 ± 15.0 0.00
Geographic area
 European countries with high income 174 (64.2) 172 (64.4) 0.02
 Non-European countries with high income 49 (18.4) 48 (18.0) 0.01
 Countries with middle income 44 (16.5) 47 (17.6) 0.03
Type of admission
 Medical 178 (66.7) 183 (68.5) 0.04
 Surgical 52 (19.5) 48 (18.0) 0.04
 Elective 19 (7.1) 21 (7.9) 0.03
 Trauma 18 (6.7) 15 (5.6) 0.05
Comorbidities
 COPD or home ventilation 60 (22.5) 65 (24.3) 0.04
 Diabetes mellitus 64 (23.9) 64 (23.9) 0.00
 Chronic renal failure 27 (10.1) 23 (8.6) 0.05
 Immunosuppression or active or hematologic neoplasm 66 (24.7) 62 (23.3) 0.04
 Heart failure (NYHA classes III-IV) 19 (7.1) 22 (8.2) 0.04
 Chronic liver failure (Child-Pugh Class C) 2 (0.7) 2 (0.7) 0.00
 Cause of AHRF - pneumonia 186 (69.7) 195 (73.0) 0.07
ARDS risk factor
 No risk factor 17 (6.4) 17 (6.4) 0.00
 Only indirect risks factor 45 (16.9) 39 (14.6) 0.06
 Only direct risk factors 168 (62.9) 173 (65.0) 0.04
 Both risk factors 37 (13.9) 38 (14.2) 0.01
ECMO use 19 (7.1) 16 (6.0) 0.05
Arterial gas
 pH 7.4 ± 0.1 7.4 ± 0.1 0.07
 P/F ratio (mmHg) 204.1 ± 86.5 199.1 ± 63.7 0.07
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 44.4 ± 13.9 44.2 ± 14.1 0.01
Non-respiratory SOFA score adjusted for missing values, 5.1 ± 3.4 5.1 ± 3.6 0.00