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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in patients with tracheostomy and patients with no tracheostomy. (n = 2377)

From: Epidemiology and patterns of tracheostomy practice in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in ICUs across 50 countries

  Tracheostomy (n = 309) No tracheostomy (n = 2068) P value
Number (%) or median (Q1-Q3) Number (%) or median (Q1-Q3)
Age (years) 63 (49–72) 63 (50–74) 0.1443
Sex (male) 200 (64.7) 1272 (61.5) 0.2775
BMI (kg/m2) 27.1 (23.1–30.8) 26.0 (22.9–30.4) 0.1410
Geo-economic area    0.0002
 European countries with high income 198/1263 (15.7) 1065/1263 (84.3)  
 Non-European countries (rest of world) with high income 63/649 (9.7) 586/649 (90.3)
 Countries with middle income 48/465 (10.3) 417/465 (89.7)
Severity of ARDS at day 1    0.9271
 Mild 95 (30.7) 619 (29.9)  
 Moderate 144 (46.6) 962 (46.5)
 Severe 70 (22.7) 487 (23.6)
Type of admission    0.0194
 Medical 211 (68.3) 1554 (75.2)  
 Surgical 20 (6.5) 123 (6.0)
 Postoperative (elective) 56 (18.1) 310 (15.0)
 Trauma 22 (7.1) 81 (4.0)
Cause of AHRF
 Pneumonia 213 (68.9) 1295 (62.6) 0.0317
 Cardiac failure 43 (12.9) 311 (15.0) 0.6051
 Asthma 4 (1.3) 29 (1.4) 1.0000
 ARDS (i.e. clinician recognized) 103 (33.3) 684 (33.1) 0.9284
 COPD 29 (9.4) 205 (9.9) 0.7714
 Unknown 15 (4.9) 117 (5.7) 0.5652
 Others 54 (17.5) 418 (20.2) 0.2606
ARDS risk factor    0.1675
 No risk factor 19 (6.1) 157 (7.6)  
 Only indirect risk factors 53 (17.1) 429 (20.7)
 Only direct risk factors 194 (62.8) 1160 (56.1)
 Both risk factor types 43 (13.9) 322 (15.6)
Illness severity at ARDS onset
 pH 7.37 (7.29–7.43) 7.34 (7.26–7.41) <.0001
 P/F ratio (mmHg) 156 (110–213) 154 (103–215) 0.6845
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 42 (36–50) 43 (37–51) 0.2751
Non-respiratory SOFA score (adjusted for missing values) (ARDS onset) 6 (4–9) 7 (4–10) 0.0010
Non-respiratory SOFA score (adjusted for missing values) at day 2 6 (4–9) 6 (4–10) 0.1333
Difference in non-respiratory SOFA score (day2-day1) (adjusted for missing values) 0 (−2–2) 0 (−2–2) 0.9598
Mechanical ventilation settings at ARDS onset
 Respiratory rate (set) (breaths/min) 18 (15–22) 16 (14–20) 0.0016
 Respiratory rate (total) (breaths/min) 20 (15–25) 20 (16–24) 0.2406
 Tidal volume (ml) 488 (400–550) 457 (400–516) 0.0105
 Tidal volume/IBW (ml/kg) 7.55 (6.34–8.96) 7.35 (6.39–8.48) 0.4519
 PEEP (cmH2O) 8 (5–10) 8 (5–10) 0.0254
 Plateau pressure (cmH2O) (n = 79, n = 663) 24 (20–27) 23 (18–28) 0.4957
 Peak inspiratory pressure (cmH2O) 27 (21–32) 26 (22–32) 0.6444
 Mean airway pressure (cmH2O) 14 (11–18) 14 (11–18) 0.4912
Use of adjuncts
 ECMO use 20 (6.5) 35 (1.7) <.0001
 High-dose corticosteroids 36 (11.7) 225 (10.9) 0.6862
 Continuous sedation 234 (75.7) 1567 (75.8) 0.9861
 Continuous neuromuscular blocking agents 34 (11.0) 286 (13.8) 0.1745
 Renal replacement therapy 35 (11.3) 169 (8.2) 0.0648
 Inhaled vasodilators 19 (6.2) 84 (4.1) 0.0928
 Neutrophil elastase therapy 3 (1.0) 10 (0.5) 0.2334
 Vasopressor used 163 (52.8) 1212 (58.6) 0.0518
  1. BMI body mass index, ICU intensive care unit, ER emergency room, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NYHA New York heart association, AHRF acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, TRALI transfusion-related acute lung injury, A/C assist control, PC pressure control, BIPAP bilevel positive airway pressure, APRV airway pressure release ventilation, SIMV synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, PRVC pressure-regulated volume control, PSV pressure support ventilation, HFO high-frequency oscillation, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure, IBW ideal body weight, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, PaCO2 partial arterial pressure of carbone dioxide
  2. Missing data: BMI = 127; Ph = 25, PaCO2 = 25, respiratory rate (set) = 250, respiratory rate (total) = 10, tidal volume = 24, tidal volume/IBW = 122, peak inspiratory pressure = 89, mean airway pressure = 687, non-respiratory SOFA score (adjusted for missing values) = 22, non-respiratory SOFA score (adjusted for missing values) at day 2 = 379, difference in non-respiratory SOFA score (day2-day1) (adjusted for missing values) = 384