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Table 1 Characteristics of included trials

From: Effect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on clinical outcomes in intensive care unit patients with infection and sepsis patients: a patient-level meta-analysis of randomized trials

First author (year) Country Setting, type of trial Patients included Follow-up Clinical diagnosis Type of procalcitonin algorithm; procalcitonin cutoffs used (μg/L)a Compliance with the PCT protocol
Annane (2013) [7] France ICU, multicenter 62 Hospital stay Severe sepsis without overt source of infection and negative blood culture Initiation and duration; R against AB: < 0.5 (< 0.25); R for AB: > 0.5 (> 5.0) 63% adherence
Bloos (2016) [8] Germany ICU, multicenter 1089 3 months Severe sepsis or septic shock (SIRS and documented infection + criteria for severe sepsis/septic shock) Discontinuation at days 4, 7, and 10; R against AB: < 1.0 or > 50% drop over previous value 49.6% adherence
Bouadma (2010) [9] France ICU, multicenter 621 2 months Critically ill patients with assumed/proven bacterial infection Initiation and duration; R against AB: < 0.5 (< 0.25); R for AB: > 0.5 (> 1.0) 47% adherence
De Jong (2016) [10] The Netherlands ICU, multicenter 1546 1 year Critically ill patients with assumed infection Duration; R against AB: < 0.5 or > 80% drop over peak value 44% adherence
Deliberato (2013) [11] Brazil ICU, single center 81 ICU discharge or 14 days postrandomization Sepsis patients with microbiologically confirmed bacterial infection Duration; R against AB: < 0.5 or > 90% drop over peak value 47.6% adherence
Hochreiter (2009) [14] Germany Surgical ICU, single center 110 Hospital stay Sepsis (SIRS and documented infection) Duration; R against AB: < 1 or > 65% drop over 3 days not reported
Layios (2012) [15] Belgium ICU, single center 379 1 month Critically ill patients with assumed infection Initiation; R against AB: < 0.5 (< 0.25); R for AB: > 0.5 (> 1.0) 46.3% adherence
Nobre (2008) [17] Switzerland ICU, single center 79 1 month Severe sepsis or septic shock Duration; R against AB: < 0.5 (< 0.25) or > 80% drop over peak value; R for AB: > 0.5 (> 1.0) 81% adherence
Oliveira (2013) [16] Brazil ICU, multicenter 94 28 days or hospital discharge Severe sepsis or septic shock (SOFA score > 10 and/or bacteremia) Discontinuation; Initial < 1.0: R against AB: 0.1 at day 4; Initial > 1.0: R against: > 90% drop over peak value 87.8% adherence
Schroeder (2009) [13] Germany Surgical ICU, single center 27 Hospital stay Severe sepsis following abdominal surgery (SIRS and documented infection + criteria for severe sepsis/septic shock) Duration; R against AB: < 1 or > 65% drop over 3 days not reported
Shehabi (2014) [1] Australia ICU, multicenter 394 3 months Sepsis (SIRS and documented infection) Duration; R against AB: < 0.25 (< 0.1) or > 90% drop over peak value 97% adherence
  1. AB antibiotic, ICU intensive care unit, PCT procalcitonin, R recommendation, SIRS systemic inflammation response system, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  2. a Cutoffs are listed as recommendation (strong recommendation)