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Table 3 Subgroup analyses

From: Corticosteroid use and intensive care unit-acquired weakness: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Analysis Study n I2 (%) Ph OR 95% CI Pe Pi Incidence corticosteroid (%) Incidence control (%)
Study type
 RCT [18] 375    1.40 0.85–2.29 0.184   25 19
 Prospective cohort studies [1, 19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34] 2012 69.0 < 0.001 1.90 1.25–2.89 0.003 0.35 46 36
Diagnostic method
 Clinical assessment [18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 31] 1232 60.6 0.013 2.06 1.27–3.33 0.003   39 23
 Electrophysiology [1, 19, 22, 25, 28,29,30, 32,33,34] 1155 70.6 < 0.001 1.65 0.92–2.95 0.093 0.56 46 46
Inclusion criterion
 Sepsis [18, 19, 30, 32] 568 80.8 0.001 1.96 0.61–6.30 0.260   34 30
 Nonsepsis [1, 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29, 31, 33, 34] 1819 63.0 0.001 1.77 1.18–2.64 0.006 0.87 45 35
 MV [20, 21, 23,24,25, 27,28,29, 31,32,33,34] 1384 66.0 0.001 2.00 1.23–3.27 0.006   50 40
 Non-MV [1, 18, 19, 22, 26, 30] 1003 74.4 0.002 1.61 0.83–3.13 0.161 0.61 31 26
Sample size
 n ≥ 100 [1, 18,19,20,21,22, 26,27,28] 1847 74.9 < 0.001 1.62 1.02–2.53 0.042   39 30
n < 100 [23,24,25, 29,30,31,32,33,34] 540 49.3 0.046 2.32 1.21–4.42 0.011 0.36 62 43
  1. I2 I-squared statistic test for heterogeneity, Ph P value for test of heterogeneity, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Pe P value for the effect estimate for each subgroup, Pi P value for interaction tests of heterogeneity between subgroups, RCT randomized controlled trial, MV mechanical ventilation