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Table 1 Characteristics of the selected studies

From: Corticosteroid use and intensive care unit-acquired weakness: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Study design Country Setting Population n Examination ICUAW Use of CS a ICU mortality (%)a
Keh et al., 2016 [18] RCT Germany MSICU Severe sepsis 375 Clinical 82 46 vs 140 NR
Gupta and Mishra, 2016 [19] Prospective cohort India MICU Sepsis 100 EMG 37 26 vs 12 NR
Nguyen The and Nguyen Huu, 2015 [1] Prospective cohort Vietnam MSICU ICU LOS ≥ 10 days 133 EMG 73 29 vs 18 49% vs 30%
Patel et al., 2014 [21] Prospective cohort America MICU MV ≥ 24 h 104 Clinical 41 35 vs 44 NR
Wieske et al., 2014 [20] Prospective cohort Netherlands MSICU MV ≥ 2 days 212 Clinical 103 81 vs 63 34% vs 9%
Anastasopoulos et al., 2011 [22] Prospective cohort Greece MSICU ICU LOS ≥ 7 days 190 EMG 40 28 vs 102 32.5% vs NR
Sharshar et al., 2010 [23] Prospective cohort France MICU, SICU MV > 7 days 86 Clinical 39 29 vs 22 NR
Brunello et al., 2010 [24] Prospective cohort Switzerland MSICU MV > 48 h and SIRS 39 Clinical 13 4 vs 0 62% vs 23%
Weber-Carstens et al., 2009 [25] Prospective cohort Germany SICU MV and SAPS II ≥ 20 56 EMG 34 21 vs 5 NR
Nanas et al., 2008 [26] Prospective cohort Greece MSICU LOS > 10 days 185 Clinical 44 7 vs 31 36% vs 20%
Ali et al., 2008 [27] Prospective cohort America MICU, NICU MV > 5days 136 Clinical 35 16 vs 42 31.4% vs 6%
Hermans et al., 2007 [28] Prospective cohort Belgium MICU MV > 7 days 412 EMG 188 123 vs 156 NR
Khan et al., 2006 [30] Prospective cohort Canada MSICU Sepsis 20 EMG 10 4 vs 4 55% vs 0%
Lefaucheur et al., 2006 [29] Prospective cohort France MICU MV > 7 days, diffuse weakness 30 EMG 26 15 vs 1 NR
De Jonghe et al., 2002 [31] Prospective cohort France MICU, SICU MV > 7 days and awake 95 Clinical 24 13 vs 13 17% vs 6%
de Letter et al., 2001 [33] Prospective cohort Netherlands MSICU MV ≥ 4 days 97 EMG 34 9 vs 18 NR
Garnacho-Montero et al., 2001 [32] Prospective cohort Spain MSICU MV > 10 days and sepsis with MOF 73 EMG 50 7 vs 4 66% vs 52%
Coakley et al., 1998 [34] Prospective cohort England MSICU MV and ICU LOS > 7 days 44 EMG 37 11 vs 2 NR
  1. ICUAW intensive care unit-acquired weakness, CS corticosteroids, ICU intensive care unit, RCT randomized controlled trial, MICU medical ICU, MSICU medical–surgical ICU, SICU surgical ICU, NR not reported, EMG electromyography, LOS length of stay, MV mechanical ventilation, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, MOF multiple organ failure
  2. aComparison between ICUAW and no ICUAW