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Table 3 Secondary outcomes at rest and during exercise

From: Comparison of exercise intensity during four early rehabilitation techniques in sedated and ventilated patients in ICU: a randomised cross-over trial

Outcomes PROM Passive cycle ergometry Quadriceps electrical stimulation FES cycling
Rest Exercise Rest Exercise Rest Exercise Rest Exercise
Heart rate (b/min) 93 (86–100) 93 (86–100) 94 (86–101) 94 (86–101) 94 (86–101) 93 (86–101) 94 (86–101) 97* (90–104)
TAPSE (cm) 2 (1.8–2.2) 1.9 (1.7–2.1) 1.8 (1.5–2) 1.8 (1.6–2) 1.7 (1.5–2) 1.8 (1.6–2) 1.8 (1.6–2) 2* (1.8–2.2)
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 87 (80–93) 88 (82–94) 85 (79–91) 89* (83–95) 87 (80–93) 87 (81–93) 84 (77–90) 91* (85–97)
PAPS (mmHg) 51 (37–66) 45 (32–59) 51 (39–63) 49 (35–62) 47 (35–58) 46 (35–57) 50 (36–64) 51†,‡ (36–67)
Respiratory Rate (c/min) 20 (16–24) 20 (16–24) 22 (17–27) 22 (17–27) 20 (15–25) 21 (16–26) 21 (17–25) 24†,‡ (19–30)
Tidal volume (mL) 513 (447–579) 507 (443–571) 514 (427–600) 527 (449–605) 521 (446–596) 497 (441–553) 510 (427–593) 521 (446–596)
  1. PROM passive range of motion, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, PAPS pulmonary arterial systolic pressure
  2. *Significant difference between rest and exercise; †significant difference between PROM and FES cycling during exercise; ‡significant difference between quadriceps electrical stimulation and FES cycling