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Table 2 Cardiac ouput values during the four types of bed exercise

From: Comparison of exercise intensity during four early rehabilitation techniques in sedated and ventilated patients in ICU: a randomised cross-over trial

Cardiac output
(L/min) (95% CI)
Passive range of leg motion (PROM) Passive cycle-ergometery Quadriceps electrical stimulation Functional electrical stimulation cycling (FES cycling)
Rest 6.6 (5.6–7.3) 6.7 (5.8–7.7) 6.6 (5.7–7.6) 6.7 (5.7–7.6)
3 min 6.6 (5.6–7.5) 6.8 (5.8–7.8) 6.8 (5.8–7.7) 7.3 (6.3–8.3)*, ‡
6 min 6.5 (5.5–7.5) 6.8 (5.8–7.7) 6.7 (5.8–7.7) 7.7 (6.8–8.7)*, †,‡
9 min 6.5 (5.6–7.5) 6.8 (5.8–7.7) 6.8 (5.8–7.7) 7.7 (6.7–8.7)*, †,‡
Recovery 6.6 (5.6–7.5) 6.7 (5.7–7.6) 6.6 (5.7–7.6) 7.1 (6.2–8.1)*
  1. *Significant difference between PROM and FES cycling; †significant difference between passive cycle-ergometery and FES cycling; significant difference between quadriceps electrical stimulation and FES cycling