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Table 2 Demographic, clinical, and biochemical data between early RRT and standard RRT patients

From: Early versus standard initiation of renal replacement therapy in furosemide stress test non-responsive acute kidney injury patients (the FST trial)

Parameters Early RRT (n = 58) Standard RRT (n = 60) P value
Age (years), mean (SD) 67.5 (15.0) 66.7 (16.7) 0.80
Male, n (%) 29 (50) 29 (48.3) 0.86
ICU, n (%)    0.79
 Medical 40 (69) 40 (66.7)  
 Surgical 18 (31) 20 (33.3)
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 48 (82.8) 50 (83.3) 0.93
Vasopressors, n (%) 45 (77.6) 47 (78.3) 0.92
Sepsis, n (%) 37 (63.8) 32 (53.3) 0.25
APACHE II score, mean (SD) 24.5 (6.4) 21.8 (6.9) 0.027
SOFA score, mean (SD) 12.7 (3.3) 11.4 (4.0) 0.058
Nonrenal SOFA score, mean (SD) 9.9 (3.3) 9.1 (4.1) 0.21
Baseline serum creatinine (mg/dL), mean (SD) 1.14 (0.44) 1.03 (0.37) 0.16
Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73m2), mean (SD)a 70.31 (28.1) 69.98 (22.8) 0.95
AKI staging, n (%)    0.06
 1 11 (19) 12 (20)  
 2 27 (46.6) 16 (26.7)  
 3 20 (34.5) 32 (53.3)  
Blood urea nitrogen at enrollment (mg/dL), median (IQR) 42 (37–78) 51 (37.5–61.25) 0.52
Serum creatinine at enrollment (mg/dL), median (IQR) 2 (2–3) 2.5 (2–3) 0.88
Co-morbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension 29 (50) 24 (56.7) 0.47
 Diabetes 14 (24.1) 15 (25) 0.91
 Dyslipidemia 16 (27.6) 16 (26.7) 0.91
 Ischemic heart disease 12 (20.7) 10 (16.7) 0.58
 Malignancy 12 (20.7) 8 (13.3) 0.29
 Cerebrovascular disease 5 (8.6) 7 (11.7) 0.58
 Chronic liver disease 10 (17.2) 11 (18.3) 0.88
Nephrotoxic drugs, n (%)
 Colistin 5 (8.6) 10 (16.7) 0.19
 Vancomycin 1 (1.7) 1 (1.7) 0.98
 Contrast 8 (13.8) 11 (18.3) 0.50
 Aminoglycosides 2 (3.4) 2 (3.3) 0.97
 Amphotericin 2 (3.4) 0 (0) 0.15
 NSAIDs 2 (3.4) 1 (1.7) 0.54
Cardiac surgery, n (%) 13 (22.4) 8 (13.3) 0.20
Treatment limitation, n (%)b 12 (20.7) 10 (16.7) 0.58
Fluid accumulation at randomization (mL), median (IQR) 4763 (2837–8515) 5114 (2050–8803) 0.84
Percentage of fluid overload, median (IQR)c 9.53 (3.43–19.68) 7.63 (2.10–12.02) 0.87
Baseline NGAL (ng/mL), median (IQR) 625 (376–1362) 860 (447–1204) 0.63
Baseline NT-proBNP (pg/mL), median (IQR) 4301 (515–35,000) 5844 (869–10,007) 0.71
Baseline angiopoietin-2 (ng/mL), median (IQR) 16,784 (8649–35,545) 22,294 (12539–33,186) 0.95
  1. Significant values are shown in bold type
  2. AKI, acute kidney injury; APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; ICU, intensive care unit; IQR, interquartile range; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; NT-proBNP, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide; RRT, renal replacement therapy; SD, standard deviation; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  3. aEstimated GFR was calculated by the CKD-EPI creatinine equation (2009)
  4. bTreatment limitation is defined as withholding or withdrawal of patients from the treatment of primary disease either by the surrogates’ decision or after a period of intensive care management
  5. cFluid overload is calculated by the total volume of fluid accumulation (intake – output) since ICU admission divided by body weight on admission and reported as a percentage