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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios for survival to different stages of care using geographical area and modifiable factors in the adjustments

From: Effects of modifiable prehospital factors on survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in rural versus urban areas

  Survival to hospital admission Survival to hospital discharge 1-year survival
OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
OHCA in urban area vs. rural area 9.28 3.42– 25.21 < 0.001 5.11 1.45– 18.05 0.011 6.81 1.52– 30.49 0.012
Bystander CPR vs. no bystander CPR 2.02 1.54– 2.65 < 0.001 2.98 1.95– 4.56 < 0.001 2.76 1.77– 4.29 < 0.001
EMS response time ≥ 10 min vs. ≤ 10 min. 0.69 0.54– 0.88 0.003 0.61 0.44– 0.84 0.002 0.57 0.41– 0.80 < 0.001
EMS physician attendance in rural area vs. no EMS physician attendance in rural area 10.7 3.94– 26.25 < 0.001 3.58 1.07– 12.01 0.039 4.71 1.10– 20.15 0.037
EMS physician attendance in urban area vs. no EMS physician attendance in urban area 1.62 1.06– 2.48 0.025 0.91 0.54– 1.45 0.736 0.91 0.53– 1.56 0.730
  1. Adjusted odds ratios (multivariable analysis) of modifiable factors associated with survival to different stages of care in rural and urban out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) (n = 1138). Due to significant interaction with area EMS-physician are reported separately for urban and rural area
  2. CI confidence interval, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, EMS emergency medical services, OR odds ratio