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Table 3 Details of episodes of suspected sepsis with discordant results for blood culture and PCR

From: Evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of bacterial DNA directly in blood of preterm neonates with suspected late-onset sepsis

Patient Blood culture (+/−)/PCR (+/−) Blood culture
microorganism
PCR
microorganism
BDL
cfu Eq/ml
Culture of other sitesa (result + microorganism) CRP (mg/L) Duration of treatment (days) Clinical diagnosis Comments
1 +/− CoNS Negative NA Tracheal aspirate (Ureaplasma urealyticum + Mycoplasma hominis) < 2.5 6 Culture-proven sepsis with CoNS  
2 +/− CoNS Negative NA CSF (negative)
Urine (negative)
< 2.5 6 Culture-proven sepsis with CoNS
3 +/− CoNS Negative NA Blood culture obtained from other site (negative)
Urine (negative)
< 2.5 7 Culture-proven sepsis with CoNS
4 +/− CoNS Negative NA Blood culture (CoNS)
CSF (negative)
Urine (negative)
< 2.5 21 Culture-proven sepsis with CoNS
5 +/− CoNS Negative NA CSF (negative)
Urine (negative)
< 2.5 2 No infection
6 +/− CoNS Negative NA CSF (negative)
Urine (negative)
6 7 Culture-proven sepsis with CoNS
7 +/− CoNS Negative NA CSF (negative)
Urine (CoNS)
4 6 Culture-proven sepsis with CoNS
8 +/− CoNS Negative NA CSF (negative)
Urine (Staphylococcus aureus < 103 + CoNS 103)
< 2.5 6 Culture-proven sepsis with CoNS
9 +/− CoNS Negative NA CSF (negative)
Skin (Candida albicans)
< 2.5 9 Culture-proven sepsis with CoNS
10 +/− CoNS Negative NA CSF (negative)
PCR (negative)
9 10 Culture-proven sepsis with CoNS
11 +/− S. aureus Negative NA Pus (S. aureus) 85 13 Culture-proven sepsis with S. aureus + necrotizing enterocolitis
12 +/− CoNS Negative NA Blood culture obtained from other site (negative)
Tracheal aspirate (Acinetobacter spp.)
8 3 No infection
13 −/+ Negative CoNS 120 Blood culture (CoNS)
CSF (negative)
Urine (negative)
47 7 Culture-proven sepsis with CoNS
14 −/+ Negative S. aureus Negative CSF (negative) 9 2 No infection
15 −/+ Negative CoNS 2585 Tracheal aspirate (Ureaplasma spp.) < 2.5 2 No infection Infant showed clinical signs of infection and umbilical catheters were removed
16 −/+ Negative Streptococcus agalactiae 92 Not obtained 86 14 Necrotizing enterocolitis (based on feeding problems and imaging) S. agalactiae is not a usual pathogen in necrotizing enterocolitis but is described in literature [43]
17 −/+ Negative CoNS Negative CSF (negative)
Tracheal aspirate (S. aureus + Enterococcus faecalis)
Urine (negative)
16 8 Pneumonia with S. aureus (based on positive sputum culture and breathing difficulties requiring intubation) Two weeks earlier, positive blood culture with CoNS treated with vancomycin for 7 days
18 −/+ Negative CoNS 2255 CSF (negative)
Urine (negative)
< 2.5 2 No infection  
  1. Abbreviations: BDL Bacterial DNA load, CoNS Coagulase-negative staphylococci, CRP C-reactive protein, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, NA Not applicable
  2. aBlood cultures taken at another site and later point in time are also depicted in this column