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Table 1 Description of the randomized controlled trials

From: Inclusion and definition of acute renal dysfunction in critically ill patients in randomized controlled trials: a systematic review

Study First author Number Centers Area Blinded CKD excluded Acute renaldysfunction excluded CKD criteria Baseline acute renal dysfunction criteria Acute renal dysfunction as Outcome Mortality
Norepinephrine plus dobutamine vs epinephrine in septic shock (2007) D Annane [32] 330 19 Drug Yes No No McCabe SOFA/RRT NA 40.0%
Hydrocortisone in septic shock (2008) CL Sprung [27] 499 52 Drug Yes No No NA UO < 0.5 mL/kg/h for > 1 h or SOFA NA 39.2%
Intensive insulin therapy in severe sepsis (2008) FM Brunkhorst [30] 600 18 Drug No Yes No Yes NA 2 × Cr or RRT 24.1%
PEEP setting in acute lung injury and ARDS (2008) A Mercat [49] 767 37 MV No No No NA SOFA SOFA 31.2%
Vasopressin vs norepinephrine infusion in septic shock (2008) JA Russell [37] 802 27 Drug Yes No No NA SOFA Brussels 43.9%
Ventilation strategy in acute lung injury and ARDS (2008) MO Meade [52] 983 30 MV Yes No No NA No No 36.4%
Exogenous surfactant in acute lung injury and the ARDS (2009) J Kesecioglu [26] 418 67 Drug No No No NA SOFA or LODS SOFA or LODS 24.5%
TAK-242 in severe sepsis (2010) TW Rice [20] 274 93 Drug Yes Yes No NA SOFA SOFA 17.0%
Neuromuscular blockers in early ARDS (2010) L Papazian [31] 340 20 Drug Yes No No NA SOFA SOFA or Cr >2 31.6%
Prone positioning in moderate and severe ARDS (2010) P Taccone [50] 342 25 MV No No No NA SOFA SOFA 31.0%
Early lactate-guided therapy (2010) TC Jansen [39] 344 4 Protocol No No No NA SOFA SOFA or RRT 33.9.0%
Corticosteroid and intensive insulin therapy in septic shock (2010) D Annane [22] 509 11 Drug No No No NA SOFA SOFA 42.9.0%
Dopamine and norepinephrine in the treatment of shock (2010) D De Backer [21] 1679 8 Drug Yes No No NA SOFA SOFA or RRT 52.0%
Recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor in severe community-acquired pneumonia (2011) RG Wunderink [34] 2138 188 Drug Yes No No RRT SOFA or Cr >3 or RRT No 18.0%
Intravenous β-2 agonist in acute respiratory distress syndrome (2012) SF Gao [53] 326 46 Drug Yes No No NA No Critical care minimum dataset 34.0%
IABP for myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock (2012) H Thiele [42] 600 37 Protocol No No No NA UO <30 mL/h GFR 39.7%
Hydroxyethyl vs Ringer’s acetate in severe sepsis (2012) A Perner [28] 798 36 Drug Yes No No NA SOFA SOFA or RRT or 2 × Cr or RIFLE 51.0%
Drotrecogin alfa in septic shock (2012) VM Ranieri [23] 1697 208 Drug Yes No No NA SOFA SOFA 26.4%
Hydroxyethyl vs saline for fluid resuscitation (2012) JA Myburgh [29] 7000 32 Drug Yes Yes Yes NA RIFLE RIFLE 18.0%
Statin in patients with ventilator associated pneumonia (2013) L Papazian [24] 300 26 Drug Yes No No McCabe SOFA No 21.2%
Recombinant human activated protein C in septic shock (2013) D Annane [33] 411 24 Drug Yes No No McCabe SOFA SOFA 47.6%
Prone positioning in ARDS (2013) C Guérin [51] 474 27 MV No No No McCabe SOFA SOFA 32.8%
High-frequency oscillation for early ARDS (2013) ND Ferguson [48] 500 27 MV No No No NA No No 47%
High-frequency oscillation for ARDS (2013) D Young [47] 795 29 MV No No No NA No No 41.7%
Effect of early vs late tracheostomy (2013) D Young [41] 909 72 Protocol No No No NA No No 30.8%
Glutamine and antioxidants in critically ill patients (2013) D Heyland [38] 1223 40 Nutrition Yes No No NA Cr >2 or UO <500 mL/24 h or > 80 baseline SOFA 32.4%
Early parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients (2013) GS Doig [16] 1372 31 Nutrition No No No RRT No SOFA or RRT 22.8%
Colloids vs crystalloids in hypovolemic shock (2013) D Annane [25] 2857 57 Drug No Yes No McCabe SOFA SOFA 25.4%
Perioperative goal-directed hemodynamic optimization in abdominal surgery (2014) D Pestaña [43] 132 6 Protocol No No No NA No No 4.2%
Perioperative, cardiac output-guided hemodynamic therapy algorithm in gastrointestinal surgery (2014) RM Pearse [40] 734 17 Protocol Yes No No Cr >1.4 No 2× Cr or <0.5 mL/12 h 33.6%
Rosuvastatin for sepsis-associated ARDS (2014) NHLBI ARDS Network [35] 745 44 Drug Yes No No RRT SOFA SOFA 28.5%
High vs low blood-pressure target in septic shock (2014) P Asfar [36] 776 29 Drug No No No RRT Cr > 1.9 or 500 ml/24 h 2c Cr or RRT 34.0%%
Lower vs higher hemoglobin in septic shock (2014) LB Holst [45] 998 32 Transfusion No No No RRT SOFA NA 43.0%%
Album replacement in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (2014) P Caironi [19] 1781 100 Drug No No No NA SOFA SOFA 43.6%
Trial route of early nutritional support in critically ill adults (2014) SE Harvey [18] 2388 33 Nutrition No No No RRT SOFA RRT 33.1%
Noninvasive ventilation vs oxygen therapy in immunocompromised patients with ARDS (2015) V Lemiale [46] 374 28 MV No No No Charlson SOFA SOFA 24.1%
Permissive underfeeding or standard enteral feeding (2015) YM Arabi [17] 894 7 Nutrition No No No NA SOFA SOFA 27.2%
Age of transfused blood in critically ill adults (2015) J Lacroix [44] 2510 64 Transfusion Yes No No NA MODS MODS 37%
Renal-replacement therapy in the intensive care unit (2016) S Gaudry [54] 620 31 RRT No No Yes No KDIGO KDIGO/RRT 48.5%
Sodium selenite and procalcitonin-guided therapy in severe sepsis or septic shock (2016) F Bloos [55] 1180 33 Drug No No No No No No 28.0%
Quality improvement intervention with daily round in critically ill patients (2016) AB Cavalcanti [56] 6877 118 Daily check list No No No No No No 32.9%
Levosimendan after cardiac surgery (2017) G Landoni [58] 548 14 Drug Yes Yes No No No RIFLE 12.9%
Recruitment and titrated PEEP vs low PEEP on mortality in ARDS (2017) ART Group [57] 1008 9 MV No No Yes NA No No 55.0%
Age of red cells for transfusion and outcomes in critically ill (2017) DJ Cooper [59] 4919 5 Transfusion Yes Yes No RRT KDIGO KDIGO 24.8%
Restrictive vs liberal transfusion in cardiac surgery (2017) CD Mazer [60] 5243 73 Transfusion No Yes No Omitted KDIGO KDIGO 30.0%
Short-term vs long-term blood storage on mortality (2017) NM Heddle [61] 24,743 4 Transfusion No No No No SOFA No 9.1%