Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of initial Rapid Response Team call for patients with daytime and nighttime Rapid Response Team activation

From: Impact of nighttime Rapid Response Team activation on outcomes of hospitalized patients with acute deterioration

  Daytime hours (0800–1659)
(n = 2656)
Nighttime hours (1700–0759)
(n = 3367)
P value
Number of RRT activations during admission, median (IQR) 1 (1–1) 1 (1–1) 0.24
Patients with multiple RRT activations during admission, n (%) 473 (17.8) 629 (18.7) 0.38
RRT activations/1000 admissions 21.5 19.3 0.12
Most recent vital signs
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg, mean (SD) 121 (29) 124 (32) 0.11
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg, mean (SD) 70 (15) 71 (16) 0.05
 Heart rate, beats/minute, mean (SD) 98 (30) 102 (30) < 0.001
 Temperature, °C, mean (SD) 36.8 (0.7) 36.8 (0.7) 0.28
 Oxygen saturation, %, mean (SD) 94 (5) 94 (5) 0.66
Most recent laboratory values
 White blood cell count, ×109/L, median (IQR) 10.1 (7.1–14.4) 10.7 (7.4–14.9) < 0.01
 Hemoglobin, g/L, mean (SD) 106.8 (22.9) 108.1 (22.6) 0.03
 Platelets, ×109/L, mean (SD) 225.4 (126.6) 229.6 (134.7) 0.22
 Potassium, mmol/L, mean (SD) 4.1 (0.7) 4.1 (0.7) 0.87
 Creatinine, μmol/L, median (IQR) 83 (60–142) 84 (60–142) 0.48
 Urea, mmol/L, median (IQR) 7.4 (4.7–12.9) 7.6 (4.9–12.9) 0.18
 Lactate, mmol/L, median (IQR) 2.2 (1.7–3.1) 2.2 (1.7–3.1) 0.92
 Albumin, g/L, mean (SD) 27.1 (6.8) 26.9 (6.8) 0.20
 INR, median (IQR) 1.2 (1.1–1.4) 1.2 (1.1–1.4) 0.62
Reason for call, n (%) < 0.001
 Respiratory distress 604 (22.7) 927 (27.5)  
 Tachycardia/bradycardia/arrhythmia 395 (14.9) 643 (19.1)  
 Altered level of consciousness 485 (18.3) 537 (15.9)  
 Hypotension 356 (13.4) 388 (11.5)  
 Hypertension 40 (1.5) 122 (3.6)  
 Airway concern 90 (3.4) 124 (3.6)  
 Seizure 30 (1.1) 30 (0.9)  
 Worried about patient 336 (12.7) 304 (9.1)  
 Other 152 (5.7) 152 (4.5)  
 Unknown 168 (6.3) 140 (4.1)  
Latency from concerning symptom/sign onset to RRT activation < 0.001
 < 1 h 2151 (81.0) 2402 (73.2)  
 1–4 h 437 (16.4) 667 (20.3)  
 5–8 h 11 (0.4) 109 (3.3)  
 9–12 h 8 (0.3) 26 (0.8)  
 13–18 h 6 (0.2) 22 (0.7)  
 19–24 h 4 (0.2) 18 (0.6)  
 25–36 h 4 (0.2) 9 (0.3)  
 37–48 h 2 (0.1) 2 (0.1)  
  > 48 h 33 (0.4) 29 (0.9)  
RRT response time, minutes, median (IQR) 5 (3–7) 5 (3–7) 0.74
  1. Abbreviations: RRT Rapid Response Team, ICU Intensive care unit, INR International normalized ratio
  2. Boldface font indicates statistical significance