|Reference||Inclusion criteria||Number of studies||Number of patients||Comparators to the HFNC||Intubation rate||Mortality||Other outcomes|
|Ni et al. ||Adults with PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg OR SpO2 < 92% on 10–12 l/min O2||18||3881||NIV or conventional oxygen therapy||Lower compared to conventional oxygen therapy but similar to NIV||Similar||
Lower RR with HFNC compared to both conventional oxygen therapy and NIV. PaO2/FiO2 better than with conventional oxygen therapy. |
No difference in ICU LOS.
No effect on PaCO2 or pH
|Ou et al. ||Adults with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300)||6||1892||NIV or conventional oxygen therapy||Lower compared to conventional oxygen therapy in high-risk patients, but similar to NIV||Similar|
|Monro-Somerville ||Adults with respiratory failure||9||2507||Conventional oxygen therapy||Similar||Similar||Better tolerance of HFNC|