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Table 1 Adrenoceptors and vasoporessin and angiotensin receptors: subtypes, cellular mechanisms, vascular effects, and main localization

From: Vasoplegia treatments: the past, the present, and the future

Receptor type Adrenoceptor α Adrenoceptor β Vasopressin receptor Angiotensin receptor
  α1 α2 β1 β2 β3 V1a V1b V2 AT-R1 AT-R2
Drug affinity Ep = NEp Ep > NEp Ep < NEp Ep > NEp Ep = NEp Vasopressin Vasopressin Vasopressin Angiotensin II
Selipressin Desmopressin
Terlipressin Terlipressin
Vascular agonistic effects Vasoconstriction Vasorelaxation Vasorelaxation Vasorelaxation Unknown Vasoconstriction NA Vasorelaxation Vasoconstriction Vasorelaxation
Inflammation effect Down-regulation ++ Down-regulation ++ Down-regulation + Down-regulation + Unknown Down-regulation Down-regulation Down-regulation Unknown Unknown
Second messengers PLC-DAG-IP3-PKC AC-cAMP-PKA (−) AC-cAMP-PKA (+)   Unknown PLC-DAG-IP3-PKC PLC-DAG-IP3-PKC AC-cAMP PLC-DAG-IP3-PKC Unknown
Main localization Post-synaptic receptors Extrajunctional post-synaptic receptors Post-synaptic receptors Extrajunctional post-synaptic receptors Unknown Vascular smooth muscle cells Anterior pituitary gland Vascular smooth muscle cells Medullary interstitial cells +++ Adrenal gland
  Vascular smooth muscle cells α1>>α2 Vascular smooth muscle cells β2>>β1 Hepatocytes Basolateral membrane of collecting duct Brain Brain
  Coronary circulation (large artery) Coronary circulation (large and small arteries) β1>>β2 Myometrium Vascular endothelium Myocytes Myocytes
  Cerebral circulation (not smaller vessels) Cerebral circulation Platelets Vascular smooth muscle cells
  Skeletal and pulmonary (α>>β) Skeletal and pulmonary Renal glomeruli and proximal tubules
   Splanchnic Splanchnic (β2>>β1)
  1. Inspired from [21]. Plus signs indicate stimulation; minus signs indicate inhibition; equal signs indicate similar drug affinity
  2. AC adenylate cyclase, cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate, DAG diacylglycerol, Ep Epinephrine, IP3 inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate, NA not applicable, NEp Norepinephrine, PKA protein kinase A, PKC protein kinase C, PLC phospholipase C