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Table 2 Univariate meta-regression analysis to identify potential sources of heterogeneity in predictive performance of positive quick Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment scores for in-hospital mortality outside the intensive care unit

From: Performance of the quick Sequential (sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment score as a prognostic tool in infected patients outside the intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Sensitivity Specificity
Variable No. of studies No. of patients Adjusted (95% CI) P value Adjusted (95% CI) P value
Study design
 Prospective 4 2759 0.59 (0.32–0.86) 0.68 0.81 (0.64–0.99) 0.30
 Retrospective 16 141,778 0.49 (0.36–0.62) 0.84 (0.76–0.91)
Study location
 USA 6 107,795 0.69 (0.53–0.85) 0.13 0.70 (0.52–0.87) <0.01
 Other countries 14 36,742 0.42 (0.30–0.54) 0.87 (0.81–0.93)
No. of patients
  ≥ 1500 10 5424 0.39 (0.25–0.54) 0.13 0.89 (0.83–0.95) 0.84
  < 1500 10 139,113 0.62 (0.47–0.77) 0.74 (0.62–0.86)
Overall mortality, %
  ≥ 10% 10 18,715 0.54 (0.38–0.70) 0.68 0.77 (0.66–0.89) 0.01
  < 10% 10 125,822 0.47 (0.31–0.63) 0.88 (0.80–0.95)
Location of enrollment
 Only ED 11 30,725 0.47 (0.31–0.63) 0.59 0.85 (0.76–0.94) 0.27
 Other non-ICU 9 113,812 0.55 (0.38–0.72) 0.81 (0.69–0.92)
Timing of the qSOFA score measurement
 At time of initial suspicion of infection 13 124,030 0.39 (0.28–0.51) 0.01 0.88 (0.82–0.94) 0.95
 Worst values 7 20,507 0.71 (0.57–0.85) 0.72 (0.56–0.87)
Disease severity
 Suspected or confirmed infection 17 142,776 0.46 (0.34–0.57) 0.18 0.87 (0.82–0.92) <0.01
 Sepsis or septic shock 3 1761 0.74 (0.53–0.96) 0.49 (0.23–0.76)
Source of infection
 Suspected or confirmed infection 16 126,080 0.58 (0.47–0.69) 0.08 0.79 (0.70–0.87) 0.66
 Specific infectious entity (community-acquired pneumonia or neutropenic fever) 4 18,457 0.24 (0.08–0.40) 0.94 (0.89–1.00)
  1. Abbreviations: qSOFA Quick Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment, ED Emergency department, ICU Intensive care unit