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Table 3 Medication costs of Belgian patients split by Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC) system classes

From: Cost-effectiveness study of early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill children (PEPaNIC): preplanned secondary analysis of a multicentre randomised controlled trial

ATC code Early PN, € Late PN, € Mean difference (95% CI), € P value (t test)
Mean SD p25–p75 Mean SD p25–p75
B (blood/blood forming organs) 850 1.820 210–740 580 1.350 140–480 -270 (-510; -40) 0.02
J (anti-infectives)a 320 2500 4–90 170 1.030 4–50 -150 (-470; 80) 0.17
A (alimentary tract/metabolism) 70 250 20–70 50 80 10–40 -30 (-40; -10) <0.001
V (various) 100 140 20–140 80 110 20–110 -20 (-40; -7) 0.004
N (nervous system) 90 180 30–80 70 150 30–80 -20 (-40; 0) 0.03
C (cardiovascular) 55 150 3–50 45 100 1–50 -10 (-30; 5) 0.07
R (respiratory) 20 150 0–0 10 50 0–0 -10 (-30; 7) 0.10
H (hormonal) 30 110 0–30 20 60 0–30 -10 (-20; 3) 0.10
M (musculo-skeletal) 13 40 3–10 7 10 3–9 -5 (-10; -2) 0.01
D (dermatologics) 10 70 0–8 7 30 0–8 -3 (-10; 3) 0.26
S (sensory organs) 3 5 0–4 2 3 0–4 -1 (-1; 0) 0.01
P (antiparasitic) 1 20 0–0 0 0 0–0 1 (-3; 0) 0.19
G (genito-urinary/sex hormones) 1 8 0–0 1 8 0–0 0 (-1; 1) 0.48
L (antineoplasmic/immunomodulating) 25 330 0–0 45 320 0–0 20 (-30; 60) 0.26
Total 1.600 4.663 380–1.260 1.070 2.577 310–830 -500 (-1.060; 20) 0.03
  1. Cost categories were ranked according to the mean difference between the treatment groups. PN parenteral nutrition, CI confidence interval, p25–p75 25th to 75th percentile
  2. aData from both Belgian and Dutch patients