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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and main clinical outcomes

From: Cost-effectiveness study of early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill children (PEPaNIC): preplanned secondary analysis of a multicentre randomised controlled trial

  Early PN (N = 670) Late PN (N = 673)  
Baseline characteristicsa
 Median age (IQR), years 1.3 (0.3–6.0) 1.4 (0.2–7.0)  
 Age <1 year, n (%) 311 (46.4) 312 (46.4)  
 Male sex, n (%) 386 (57.6) 393 (58.4)  
  STRONGkids risk level, n (%)b
  Medium 593 (88.5) 600 (89.2)  
  High 77 (11.5) 73 (10.8)  
  Median PeLOD score, first 24 hours in paediatric ICU (IQR)c 21 (12–32) 21 (11–31)  
  Median PIM2 score (IQR)d -2.8 (-3.7; -1.3) -2.8 (-3.7; -1.6)  
  Emergency admission, n (%) 325 (48.5) 308 (45.7)  
 Diagnostic group, n (%)
  Surgical cardiac 264 (39.4) 259 (38.5)  
  Surgical other 202 (30.1) 205 (30.4)  
  Medical neurological 44 (6.6) 50 (7.4)  
  Medical other 160 (23.9) 159 (23.5)  
 Condition on admission, n (%)
  Mechanical ventilation required 596 (90.0) 587 (87.2)  
  ECMO or other mechanical hemodynamic support required 16 (2.4) 22 (3.3)  
  Infection 256 (38.2) 244 (36.3)  
 Clinical primary outcomes    P valuee
  New infections, n (%) 120 (17.9) 71 (10.6) <0.001
 Median duration of stay in paediatric ICU (IQR), dayse 4 (2–9) 3 (2–7) 0.002
  1. PN parenteral nutrition, STRONGkids Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth, PeLOD Paediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction, PIM2 Paediatric Index of Mortality 2, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU intensive care unit
  2. aThere were no significant differences in characteristics between treatment groups at baseline
  3. bSTRONGkids scores range from 0 to 5, with a score of 0 indicating a low risk of malnutrition, a score of 1 to 3 indicating medium risk, and a score of 4 to 5 indicating high risk
  4. cPeLOD scores range from 0 to 71, with higher scores indicating more severe illness
  5. dPIM2 scores, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of mortality
  6. eThe duration of stay in the paediatric ICU was defined as the time from admission until the patient was ready for discharge (i.e., the patient no longer required or was no longer at risk of requiring vital-organ support). The duration of stay was not censored, nor adjusted for death