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Table 1 Study description

From: Performance of critical care prognostic scoring systems in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Study (country) Scoring systems Sample size (age in years) (Outcome) and model performance measures Study (country) Scoring system Sample size (age in years) (Outcome) and model performance measures
Abhinandan and Vedavathi, 2013 (India) [60] APACHE II 50 (18–90, mean 48.36) (Unspecified mortality) D: not reported; C: not reported; CM: not reported; comparison of means Liu et al., 2016 (China) [61] APACHE II 137 (mean 69.53 ± 9.28) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: not reported; CM: sensitivity, specificity
Aggarwal et al., 2006 (India) [7] APACHE II
SAPS II
MPM II 0
MPM II 24
459 (16–80) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL C and H statistics; CM: sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV, accuracy Mohan et al., 2015 (India) [46] APACHE II
SAPS II
SAPS 3
100 (mean: survivors 44.29 ± 15.53, non-survivors 57.37 ± 20.42) (ICU mortality) D: not reported; C: not reported; CM: sensitivity, specificity; comparison of means
Ahluwalia et al., 1999 (India) [29] APACHE II 48 hours (TA) New Scorea 79 (13–80, mean 46) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC (CI not reported); C: not reported; CM: sensitivity, specificity Nair et al., 2016 (India) [62] SAPS 48 (mean: survivors 53.56, non-survivors 47.78) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC;
C: not reported
Celik et al., 2014 (Turkey) [63] SAPS II 545 (>18) (ICU mortality) D: not reported; C: not reported; CM: not reported; comparison of means Naqvi et al., 2016 (Pakistan) [33] APACHE II
SAPS
96 (mean 32.93 ± 16.61) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL
Chang et al., 2006 (Taiwan) [64] APACHE II 1263 (13–92, mean 56) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL Nassar et al., 2012 (Brazil) [42] APACHE IV
SAPS 3
MPM III
5780 (median 66, IQR 47–79) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL C statistic
Chiavone and Rasslan, 2005 (Brazil) [65] APACHE II 94 (16–97) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: calibration curve, stratified in 10% risk bands, R2 Naved et al., 2011 (Pakistan) [34] APACHE II (48 hours) 253 (15–84, mean 51.26 ± 17.9) (ICU mortality) D: not reported; C: chi-square test
Eapen et al., 1997 (India) [30] APACHE II (VA) 500 (13–84) (Unspecified mortality) D: AUROC (CI not reported); C: not reported Nimgaonkar et al., 2004 (India) [35] APACHE II
ANN22a
ANN15a
2962 (mean 37.5 ± 16.1) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL
Evran et al., 2016 (Turkey) [47] APACHE II
APACHE IV
SAPS 3
487 (18–96, mean 58.58 ± 18 (ICU mortality) D: AUROC (as figure); C: not reported; CM: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV Nouira et al., 1998 (Tunisia) [66] APACHE II
SAPS II
MPM 0
MPM 24
1325 (mean 46.6 ± 20.4) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL C and H statistics; CM: NPV, PPV
Fadaizadeh et al., 2012 (Iran) [67] APACHE II
SAPS II
415 (mean 49.28 ± 0.94) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL C statistic; CM: sensitivity, specificity Ratanarat et al., 2005 (Thailand) [68] APACHE II
SAPS I
482 (mean 56 ± 21) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC; C: not reported
CM: sensitivity, specificity
Faruq et al., 2013 (Bangladesh) [37] APACHE II
SAPS II
194 (mean 61.06 ± 15.42 (ICU mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL C statistic Riviello et al., 2016 (Rwanda) [43] MPM III (0)
R-MPMa
Simplified R-MPMa
427 (median 34, IQR 25–47) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL
Galal et al., 2013 (Egypt) [49] APACHE II
SAPS II
105 (0–88, mean 54.59 ± 15.75) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC (CI not reported); C: HL; CM: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy Sathe and Bapat, 2014 (India) [69] APACHE II
SAPS II
1543 (mean 53.9 ± 16.8) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL
Gilani et al., 2014 (Iran) [70] APACHE II
APACHE III
SAPS II
202 (14–85 mean 53.1 ± 20.3) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC (CI not reported); C: HL; CM: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, NPV, PPV Sekulic et al., 2015 (Serbia) [48] APACHE II
MPM II (0)
MPM II (24)
MPM II (48)
MPM II (72)
MPM II (7 days)
SAPS II
60 (mean 59.0 ± 15.8) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC (as figure for MPM II (24));
C: HL; CM: sensitivity, specificity
Godinjak et al., 2016 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) [31] APACHE II
SAPS II
174 (19–87, mean 61.7 ± 16.3) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: not reported; CM: sensitivity, specificity Shoukat et al., 2016 (Pakistan) [71] APACHE IV 155 (13–70, mean 38.39 ± 13.61) (Unspecified mortality) D: not reported; C: not reported; CM: not reported; comparison of means
Gupta and Arora, 2004 (India) [72] APACHE II 330 (mean 43.32 ± 16.22) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC (CI not reported); C: HL; CM: accuracy Shrestha et al., 2011 (Nepal) [73] APACHE III 117 (16–84, mean 43.18 ± 18.49) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL; CM: sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV, accuracy
Haidri et al., 2011 (Pakistan) [74] APACHE II 142 (15–90, mean 53.16 ± 19.29) (ICU mortality) D: not reported; C: not reported; comparison of means Silva Junior et al., 2010 (Brazil) [55] SAPS 3 1310 (mean 67.1 ± 15.3) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL C statistic;
CM: sensitivity, specificity
Halim et al., 2009 (Indonesia) [75] APACHE II 144 (15–85, mean 47.33 ± 17.17) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC (CI not reported); C: HL; CM: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, NPV, PPV Soares and Salluh, 2006 (Brazil) [39] SAPS II
SAPS 3
SAPS 3 (CSA)
952 (>18, mean 58.3 ± 23.1) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL C statistic
Hamza et al., 2009 (Egypt) [76] APACHE IV
SAPS II
MPM II0
265 (mean 57.07 ± 16.6) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL H statistic Soares et al., 2004 (Brazil) [40] APACHE II
APACHE III
SAPS II,
MPM II 0
MPM II 24
1257 (18–93, mean 56.0 ± 16.7) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL H statistic
Hashmi et al., 2016 (Pakistan) [77] APACHE II APACHE II (MTA) 213 (mean 46.31 ± 18.43) (Unspecified mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL; CM: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy Soares et al., 2010 (Brazil) [41] SAPS II
SAPS 3
SAPS 3 (CSA)
MPM III (24)
717 (mean 61.2 ± 15.4) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL C statistic
Hernandez et al., 2014 (Philippines) [78] SAPS 3 2426 (mean 62 ± 17) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC (CI not reported); C: HL C statistic Sutheechet, 2009 (Thailand) [79] SAPS II
MPM II (24)
639 (18–100, mean 56.9 ± 20.6) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC;
C: HL; CM: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, NPV, PPV
Hosseini and Ramazani, 2015 (Iran) [80] APACHE II 150 (3–97) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL; CM: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy Teoh et al., 1991 (Malaysia) [81] APACHE II 100 (1 month–82 years) (Hospital mortality) D: not reported; C: not reported; CM: not reported; correlation
Juneja et al, 2012 (India) [1] APACHE II
APACHE III
APACHE IV
SAPS II
SAPS 3
MPM II (0)
MPM III (0)
653 (mean 58.48 ± 18.6) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL; CM: sensitivity, specificity Turner et al., 1989 (South Africa) [36] APACHE II 728 (12–88, mean 43) (Unspecified mortality) D: not reported; C: not reported; CM: not reported; correlation
Khan et al., 2015 (India) [32] APACHE II
APACHE II (48 hours)
SAPS II
SAPS II (48 hours)
85 (mean 39.14 ± 17.3) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: not reported; CM: sensitivity, specificity Wilairatana et al., 1995 (Thailand) [82] APACHE II
APACHE III
SAPS II
209 (16–93, mean 55.36 ± 17.44) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: not reported;
CM: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy
Khawannimit and Geater, 2007 (Thailand) [38] APACHE II
SAPS II
1316 (mean 55.6 ± 18.2) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL C and H statistics; CM: sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV, accuracy Xing et al., 2015 (China) [52] APACHE II
APACHE IV
SAPS 3
981 (mean 64.8 ± 12.1) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL C statistic
Khwannimit and Bhurayanontachai, 2011 (Thailand) [51] APACHE II
SAPS 3
SAPS 3 (AUS)
SAPS II
Customised APACHE II (recalibration)
Customised SAPS II (recalibration)
Customised SAPS 3 (recalibration)
2022 (median 62, IQR 49–73) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL H and C statistic Yamin et al., 2011 (Pakistan) [28] APACHE IV 162 (9–90, mean 38.024) (ICU mortality) D: not reported; C: not reported; CM: accuracy; comparison of means
Kiatboonsri and Charoenpan, 1995 (Thailand) [45] APACHE II 334 (15–98, mean 56.01 ± 18.23) (Hospital mortality) D: AUROC not reported; C: not reported; CM: sensitivity, specificity, PPV, accuracy Zhao et al., 2013 (China) [50] SAPS II (initial)
SAPS II (48 hours)
SAPS II (24 hours)
SAPS II (72 hours)
Simplified SAPS II (VA)
1684 (18–98, mean 58.93 ± 18.30) (ICU mortality) D: AUROC; C: HL; CM: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy; correlation
  1. a New model development
  2. VA variable adjustment, MTA modelling technique adjustment, D discrimination, AUROC area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, C calibration, HL Hosmer–Lemeshow statistic, CM classification measures (e.g. sensitivity, specificity, PPV positive predictive values, NPV negative predictive values, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, ANN artificial neural network, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SAPS (AUS) Simplified Acute Physiology Score (Australian), SAPS (CSA) Simplified Acute Physiology Score (Central and South American), MPM Mortality Probability Models, R-MPM Rwanda-Mortality Probability Model, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, CI confidence interval