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Table 1 Baseline characteristics at the time of intubation

From: Emergency department hyperoxia is associated with increased mortality in mechanically ventilated patients: a cohort study

  All subjects
n = 688
ED hypoxiaa
n = 38
ED normoxiab
n = 350
ED hyperoxiac
n = 300
P value
Age (years) 59.1 (16.0) 55.0 (16.7) 60.1 (14.7) 58.7 (17.1) 0.024
Female gender, n (%) 290 (42.2) 15 (39.5) 166 (47.4) 106 (35.3) 0.015
Race, n (%)
 Black 369 (53.6) 23 (60.5) 183 (52.3) 162 (54.0) 0.661
 White 317 (46.1) 15 (39.5) 164 (46.9) 134 (44.7)  
 Other 7 (1.0) 0 (0) 3 (0.9) 4 (1.3)  
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 234 (34.0) 14 (36.8) 122 (34.9) 98 (32.7) 0.383
 Malignancy 117 (17.0) 8 (21.1) 57 (16.3) 52 (17.3) 0.655
 Congestive heart failure 189 (27.5) 10 (26.3) 92 (26.3) 86 (28.7) 0.893
 Diabetes mellitus 252 (36.6) 19 (50.0) 125 (35.7) 107 (35.7) 0.289
 End-stage renal disease 52 (7.6) 5 (13.2) 24 (6.9) 23 (7.7) 0.498
 Immunosuppression 61 (8.9) 6 (15.8) 33 (9.4) 22 (7.3) 0.287
 Cirrhosis 48 (7.0) 1 (2.6) 26 (7.4) 21 (7.0) 0.660
Indication for mechanical ventilation, n (%)
 Asthma 18 (2.6) 0 8 (2.3) 10 (3.3) 0.492
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 77 (11.2) 4 (10.5) 39 (11.1) 34 (11.3)  
 CHF/pulmonary edema 42 (6.1) 5 (13.2) 24 (6.9) 13 (4.3)  
 Sepsis 237 (34.4) 17 (44.7) 117 (33.4) 102 (34.0)  
 Trauma 119 (17.3) 6 (15.8) 58 (16.6) 53 (17.7)  
 Cardiac arrest 42 (6.1) 1 (2.6) 17 (4.9) 24 (8.0)  
 Drug overdose 29 (4.2) 1 (2.6) 13 (3.7) 15 (5.0)  
 Other 129 (18.9) 4 (10.5) 74 (21.1) 49 (16.3)  
APACHE II scored 16 (12–20) 19 (14–25) 16 (12–20) 15 (11–20) 0.011
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 117 (94–145) 105 (75–148) 117 (97–145) 118 (95–144) 0.708
Vasopressor infusion, n (%) 178 (25.9) 15 (39.5) 85 (24.3) 77 (25.7) 0.238
Antibiotic administration, n (%) 332 (48.3) 23 (60.5) 177 (50.6) 131 (43.7) 0.068
Lactate (mmol/L) 2.3 (1.5–4.2) 3.0 (2.0–5.9) 2.2 (1.4–3.9) 2.3 (1.5–4.2) 0.047
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.1 (2.6) 12.1 (2.5) 12.1 (2.6) 12.0 (2.7) 0.335
Intravenous fluids in ED (L) 1.8 (1.8) 1.7 (1.5) 1.7 (1.8) 1.8 (1.8) 0.969
ED LOS (hours) 5.4 (3.5–7.9) 5.9 (3.8–8.4) 5.6 (3.7–8.1) 5.3 (3.5–7.5) 0.985
  1. Continuous variables are reported as mean (standard deviation) and median (interquartile range). P values are from the chi-square test for categorical variables, one-way analysis of variance for continuous variables, and the Kruskal-Wallis test (lactate, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)). Bonferroni correction: α/n of comparisons = 0.05/3 = 0.017. CHF congestive heart failure, LOS length of stay, ED emergency department
  2. aPartial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) <60 mmHg
  3. bPaO2 60–120 mmHg
  4. cPaO2 > 120 mmHg
  5. dModified score, which excludes the Glasgow Coma Scale