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Table 3 Ultrasound scan to define the nature of pleural effusion

From: Thoracic ultrasound for pleural effusion in the intensive care unit: a narrative review from diagnosis to treatment

  Exudate Transudate Hemothorax Empyema Malignant effusion
Internal echogenicity:
Complex non-septated
Complex septated
Septation, non -septated or anaechoic Anechoic Hyperechogenic Often septated Complex septation, non-septated
Homogeneity or not
Homogeneity or not Not Homogeneity Homogeneity Homogeneity
Pleural thickness Thickened Normal Thickness Thickness Irregular pleural thickness
Other findings Based on the etiologies General bilaterally, echocardiography findings Pneumothorax, atelectasis, consolidation Pulmonary consolidation and air bronchograms Liver metastasis;
presence of pleural or diaphragmatic nodules