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Table 1 Assessment of fluid volume

From: Thoracic ultrasound for pleural effusion in the intensive care unit: a narrative review from diagnosis to treatment

Authors Patients Position Derived formula Results Mean prediction errora/mean biasb Limits of agreementsc/standard errord
Vignon et al. [29] Mechanically ventilated and not ventilated patients Supine NA Pleural effusion > 800 mL predicted when the distance is: > 45 mm (right; sensitivity 94%, specificity 76%); > 50 mm (left; sensitivity 100%, specificity 67%)
Positive linear correlation between distance and volume: r = 088; r2 = 0.72; p < 0.0001
28 ± 146 mLb −286 mL and +343mLc
Roch et al. [30] Mechanicall ventilated patients Supine with arm abducted NA A distance between lung and posterior chest wall at the lung base > 5 cm predicted a drained volume > 500 mL (sensitivity 83%, specificity 90%, positive predictive value 91%, negative predictive value 82%) NA NA
Balik et al. [31] Mechanically ventilated patients Supine with mild trunk elevation at 15° V(ml) = 20 × Sep (mm) Positive linear correlation between distance (Sep) and volume: r = 0.72; r2 = 0.52; p < 0.001 158.4 ± 160.6a NA
Usta et al. [32] Spontaneous breathing patients after cardiac surgery Sitting V (ml) = 16 × D (mm) Positive linear correlation between D and V: r = 0.89, r2 = 0.79; p < 0.001 −21.1 ± 97.78a 97.42d
Remérand et al. [33] Critically ill patients Supine V (ml) = LUS × AUS Positive linear correlation between ultrasound V and drained V (r = 0.84, p < 0.001) and with CT V (r = 0.90, p < 0.001). −33b −292 to + 227 mLc
  1. A US cross-sectional area, CT computed tomography, D distance, L US paravertebral length, NA not applicable, PLEFF pleural effusion, Sep maximal distance between parietal and visceral pleura, V pleural volume
  2. aMean prediction error
  3. bMean bias
  4. cLimits of agreements
  5. dStandard error