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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Comparison of the efficacy of three topical antiseptic solutions for the prevention of catheter colonization: a multicenter randomized controlled study

Characteristic All
N = 796
0.5% CHG
N = 261
1.0% CHG
N = 278
10% PVI
N = 257
Age, mean (SD), years 66.2 (16.3) 65.7 (16.3) 65.9 (16.3) 67.1 (16.4)
Gender, male (n, %) 504 (63.3%) 162 (62.1%) 187 (67.3%) 155 (60.3%)
APACHE 2, mean (SD) 21.0 (8.5) 21.0 (8.6) 21.5 (8.6) 20.5 (8.4)
SAPS 2, mean (SD) 49.4 (18.6) 48.5 (19.2) 50.9 (18.2) 48.8 (18.4)
SOFA, mean (SD) 7.2 (4.0) 7.1 (3.9) 7.5 (4.3) 7.0 (3.9)
Comorbidities (n, %)
 Immunodeficiency 39 (4.9%) 10 (3.8%) 17 (6.1%) 12 (4.7%)
 Steroid administration 90 (11.3%) 32 (12.3%) 35 (12.6%) 23 (9.0%)
 Trauma 64 (8.0%) 27 (10.3%) 16 (5.8%) 21 (8.2%)
 Cancer 84 (10.6%) 29 (11.1%) 31 (11.2%) 24 (9.3%)
 Diabetes 153 (19.2%) 57 (21.8%) 51 (18.4%) 45 (17.5%)
 HIV 1 (0.1%) 0 (0%) 1 (0.4%) 0 (0%)
 Cirrhosis 40 (5.0%) 13 (5.0%) 14 (5.0%) 13 (5.1%)
 Acute kidney injury 245 (30.8%) 85 (32.6%) 81 (29.1%) 79 (30.7%)
 Chronic kidney disease 137 (17.2%) 51 (19.5%) 47 (16.9%) 39 (15.2%)
Admission category (n, %)
 Medical 645 (81.0%) 203 (77.8%) 231 (83.1%) 211 (82.1%)
 Scheduled surgery 23 (2.9%) 9 (3.5%) 5 (1.8%) 9 (3.5%)
 Emergency surgery 128 (16.1%) 49 (18.8%) 42 (15.1%) 37 (14.4%)
Infections before catheter insertion (n, %) 448 (56.3%) 150 (57.5%) 162 (58.3%) 136 (52.9%)
Origin of infection (n, %)
 Central nervous system 4 (0.5%) 1 (0.4%) 2 (0.7%) 1 (0.4%)
 Pulmonary 195 (24.5%) 69 (26.5%) 63 (22.7%) 63 (24.5%)
 Cardiovascular 5 (0.6%) 2 (0.8%) 2 (0.7%) 1 (0.4%)
 Abdominal 92 (11.6%) 23 (8.9%) 44 (15.8%) 25 (9.7%)
 Urinary tract 44 (5.5%) 19 (7.3%) 10 (3.6%) 15 (5.8%)
 Skin 14 (1.8%) 7 (2.7%) 3 (1.1%) 4 (1.6%)
 Catheter 8 (1.0%) 2 (0.8%) 5 (1.8%) 1 (0.4%)
 Others 82 (10.3%) 25 (9.6%) 31 (11.2%) 26 (10.1%)
 None 351 (44.2%) 112 (43.1%) 118 (42.5%) 121 (47.1%)
Antibiotics before catheter insertion (n, %) 445 (55.9%) 153 (58.6%) 155 (55.8%) 137 (53.3%)
  1. CHG chlorhexidine gluconate, PVI povidone-iodine, SD standard deviation, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, SAPS simplified acute physiology score, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, HIV human immunodeficiency virus