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Table 2 Adjusted analysis of associations between type of nutrition and four 28-day outcomes: invasive mechanical ventilation, mortality, ventilator-free days, and intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia

From: Initial nutritional management during noninvasive ventilation and outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

28-Day outcomes sHR (95% CI) P value
Invasive mechanical ventilation   <0.0001
 No nutrition 1.0  
 Parenteral nutrition 1.7 (1.0–2.7) 0.04
 Enteral nutrition 2.1 (1.1–4.2) 0.03
 Oral nutrition 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 0.0005
  HR (95% CI) P value
Mortality   0.02
 No nutrition 1.0  
 Parenteral nutrition 1.3 (0. 7–2.2) 0.39
 Enteral nutrition 2.3 (1.2–4.4) 0.01
 Oral nutrition 0.8 (0.5–1.1) 0.20
  RR (95% CI) P value
Ventilator-free days   0.006
 No nutrition 1.0  
 Parenteral nutrition 0.9 (0.7–1.0) 0.11
 Enteral nutrition 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.01
 Oral nutrition 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.10
  sHR (95% CI) P value
Nosocomial infectiona   0.02
 No nutrition 1.0  
 Parenteral nutrition 1.0 (0.5–1.9) 0.96
 Enteral nutrition 2.2 (1.1–4.5) 0.03
 Oral nutrition 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.06
  sHR (95% CI) P value
ICU-acquired pneumonia   0.18
 No nutrition 1.0  
 Parenteral nutrition 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 0.75
 Enteral nutrition 2.1 (0.8–5.4) 0.13
 Oral nutrition 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.17
  sHR (95% CI) P value
VAP   0.002
 No nutrition 1.0  
 Parenteral nutrition 2.9 (1.1–7.4) 0.03
 Enteral nutrition 6.9 (2.1– 22.3) 0.001
 Oral nutrition 0.9 (0.4–2.1) 0.76
  1. Abbreviations: sHR Subdistribution hazard ratio, ICU Intensive care unit, RR Relative risk, VAP Ventilator-associated pneumonia
  2. Results are given as HR for Cox models, RR for the negative binomial model, and subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) for the Gray and Fine model. (i.e., age, sex, hospital length of stay before ICU admission < 2 days, acute illness severity at ICU admission [Sequential Organ Failure Assessment {SOFA} score], respiratory and neurologic SOFA subscores at ICU admission, obesity, chronic disease, and main diagnosis at ICU admission)
  3. aNosocomial infection includes bacteremia, urinary tract infection, VAP, ICU-acquired pneumonia, central line-associated bloodstream infection