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Table 3 Main outcomes at intensive care unit discharge, hospital discharge, and day 90 follow-up

From: Impact of earplugs and eye mask on sleep in critically ill patients: a prospective randomized study

  Control group Intervention group p Value
At ICU dischargea n = 22 n = 23  
Self-assessed sleep quality, VAS 60 (25–80) 70 (50–70) 0.63
Self-assessed comfort score, VAS 70 (50–80) 70 (70–80) 0.68
Anxiety score, HADS 9 (6–11) 8 (6–10) 0.66
Depression score, HADS 8 (4–9) 4.5 (2–9) 0.25
Delirium, n (%) 2 (6) 2 (7) 1
ICU length of stay, days 7 (5–26) 7 (4–11) 0.18
ICU mortality, n (%) 4 (13) 3 (10) 0.99
At hospital dischargeb n = 21 n = 22  
Hospital length of stay, days 26 (14–86) 24 (12–47) 0.76
Hospital mortality, n (%) 4 (13) 3 (10) 0.76
At day 90 follow-upc n = 18 n = 16  
Anxiety score, HADS 6 (4–12) 8 (4–11) 0.69
Depression score, HADS 6 (2–9) 6 (3–12) 0.63
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index 5 (5–8) 8 (5–11) 0.25
Impact of Event Scale–Revised 16 (9–27) 11 (5–18) 0.15
  1. ICU Intensive care unit, VAS Visual analogue scale from zero (poor) to 100 (excellent), HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
  2. Results are expressed as median (IQR) or frequency (%)
  3. aSix patients died in the ICU, and ten were unable to answer questionnaires at ICU discharge. Consequently, evaluation at ICU discharge was performed in 45 patients
  4. bTwo patients died in the hospital after ICU discharge. Consequently, evaluation at hospital discharge was performed in 43 patients
  5. cSeven patients lost to follow-up between hospital discharge and day 90 and two were unable to answer questionnaires. Consequently, evaluation at day 90 was performed in 34 patients
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