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Table 1 Characteristics of participants at study entry

From: The impact of N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid in contrast-induced nephropathy in critical care patients: an open-label randomized controlled study

  All patients (n = 124) NacA group (n = 60) Control group (n = 64) P value
Age (years) 50.90 (1.89) 51.34 (2.71) 50.51 (2.65) 0.82
Male gender, n (%) 96 (77.41) 46 (76.66) 55 (85.93) 0.24
Weight (Kg) 70.41 (2.42) 70.17 (3.07) 70.7 (4.01) 0.91
Height (cm) 168 (0.88) 165 (1.18) 169 (1.27) 0.40
BMI (Kg/m2) 27.41 (1.36) 25.63 (1.85) 29.63 (1.83) 0.59
APACHE II score 13.85 (0.63) 14.44 (1.01) 13.29 (0.78) 0.37
SOFA score 6.04 (0.32) 5.94 (0.5) 6.14 (0.41) 0.75
Category of admission
 Medical, n (%) 53 (42.74) 23 (38.33) 30 (46.87) 0.36
 Surgical, n (%) 29 (23.38) 13 (21.66) 16 (25) 0.67
 Neurosurgical, n (%) 42 (33.87) 24 40) 18 (28.12) 0.18
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 12 (9.67) 9 (15) 3 (4.68) 0.06
 Hypertension, n (%) 36 (29.03) 18 (30) 18 (28.12) 0.84
 Cardiovascular, n (%) 14 (11.29) 8 (6.45) 6 (9.37) 0.57
 Cirrhosis, n (%) 1 (0.80) 1 (1.6) 0 0.48
 History of renal disease, n (%) 10 (8.06) 6 (10) 4 (6.25) 0.52
 Sepsis, n (%) 43 (34.67) 24 (40) 19 (29.68) 0.57
 COPD, n (%) 19 (15.32) 10 (16.66) 9 (14.06) 0.80
 Charlson index score 2.15 (0.22) 2.47 (0.38) 1.86 (0.24) 0.17
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.79 (0.06) 0.81 (0.10) 0.75 (0.06) 0.10
Serum cystatin-C (mg/L) 0.92 (0.06) 0.97 (0.07) 0.92 (0.09) 0.78
Serum urea,median (mg/dl) 45 (3.48) 56 (5.51) 41 (4.22) 0.08
Urea/creatinine 61.39 (2.41) 60.21 (3.51) 62.69 (3.25) 0.60
Fluid balance/24 h (ml) 1388 (151.7) 1133 (194.8) 1633 (227.6) 0.09
Vasoactive therapy, n (%) 45 (36.29) 20 (33.33) 25 (39.06) 0.57
Noradrenaline dose, γ 0.65 (0.02) 0.13 (0.03) 0.09 (0.03) 0.46
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 76 (61.29) 32 (53.33) 44 (68.75) 0.09
Diuretic therapy, n (%) 19 (15.32) 12 (20) 7 (10.93) 0.21
ACEi or ARBs, n (%) 27 (21.77) 14 (23.33) 13 (20.31) 0.82
Nephrotoxic medications, n (%) 87 (70.16) 43 (71.66) 44 (68.75) 0.82
CIN, n (%) 21 (16.93) 11 (18.33) 10 (15.62) 0.81
Volume of contrast agent (ml) 123 (2.50) 128.75 (3.95) 119 (3.16) 0.06
Multiple studies, n (%) 19 (15.32) 6 (10) 13 (20.31) 0.62
Length of ICU stay before entering the study (days) 18.61 (2.4) 15.74 (2.3) 21.68 (4.07) 0.18
Length of ICU stay (days, median) 28.5 (3.53) 32.5 (5.11) 27.5 (4.49) 0.34
ICU mortality, n (%) 26 (20.96) 15 (25) 11 (17.18) 0.37
RRT 10 days post contrast agent, number of patients (%) 7 (5.64) 3 (5) 4 (6.25) 1.00
  1. Data are presented as mean (SE) unless otherwise indicated. Nephrotoxic drugs included aminoglycosides, amphotericin, colimycin, vancomycin, teicoplanin and any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (at least one)
  2. NacA group Treatment (N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid) group, BMI body mass index, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ACEi angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARBs angiotensin II receptor blockers, RRT renal replacement therapy