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Table 1 Study population characteristics throughout the intervention

From: Implementation of sepsis bundles in public hospitals in Brazil: a prospective study with heterogeneous results

Variable Baseline
(n = 384)
Second quarter
(n = 288)
Third quarter
(n = 422)
Fourth quarter
(n = 531)
Fifth quarter
(n = 563)
Sixth quarter
(n = 492)
Seventh quarter
(n = 398)
Eighth quarter
(n = 357)
p Valuea
Age, years 61.0 (46.0–75.2) 62.5 (47.0–75.0) 63.0 (49.2–75.0) 61.0 (48.0–74.0) 60.0 (46.0–74.0) 60.0 (44.0–74.0) 61.0 (46.2–74.0) 62.0 (50.0–74.5) 0.133
Male sex 223 (58.1) 157 (54.5) 240 (56.9) 293 (55.2) 326 (57.9) 270 (54.9) 227 (57.0) 197 (55.2) 0.802
Comorbidities
 Diabetes 98 (25.5) 71 (24.7) 108 (25.6) 141 (26.6) 148 (26.3) 111 (22.6) 90 (22.6) 75 (21.0) 0.216
 Immunosuppression 66 (17.2) 38 (13.2) 81 (19.2) 96 (18.1) 95 (16.9) 89 (18.1) 88 (22.1) 85 (23.8) 0.380
 COPD 41 (10.7) 28 (9.7) 41 (9.7) 35 (6.6) 44 (7.8) 24 (4.9) 20 (5.0) 23 (6.4) 0.133
 CRF 43 (11.2) 37 (12.8) 55 (13.0) 81 (15.3) 64 (11.4) 43 (8.7) 42 (10.6) 42 (11.8) <0.0001
 Cancer 45 (11.7) 28 (9.7) 51 (12.1) 58 (10.9) 54 (9.6) 52 (10.6) 66 (16.8) 60 (16.8) 0.330
 Arterial hypertension 183 (47.7) 134 (46.5) 186 (44.1) 234 (44.1) 243 (43.2) 185 (37.6) 143 (35.9) 142 (39.8) 0.004
Type of patient          0.343
 Medical 281 (73.2) 191 (66.3) 325 (77.0) 418 (78.7) 411 (73.0) 358 (72.8) 295 (74.1) 288 (80.7)  
 Surgical 103 (26.8) 97 (33.7) 97 (23.0) 113 (21.3) 152 (27.0) 134 (27.2) 103 (25.9) 69 (19.3)  
Source of infection
 Pneumonia 248 (64.6) 157 (54.5) 260 (61.6) 302 (56.9) 328 (58.3) 250 (50.8) 185 (46.5) 197 (55.2) 0.493
 Urinary tract 61 (15.9) 55 (19.1) 60 (14.2) 95 (17.9) 89 (15.8) 90 (18.3) 69 (17.3) 53 (14.8) <0.0001
 Abdominal 67 (17.4) 51 (17.7) 61 (14.5) 63 (11.9) 79 (14.0) 90 (18.3) 78 (19.6) 45 (12.6) 0.893
Type of infection          0.078
 Community 238 (62.0) 168 (58.3) 230 (54.5) 280 (52.7) 339 (60.2) 284 (57.7) 226 (56.8) 233 (65.3)  
 Nosocomial 146 (38.0) 120 (41.7) 192 (45.5) 251 (47.3) 224 (39.8) 208 (42.3) 172 (43.2) 124 (34.7)  
Location at presentation          <0.0001
 Emergency department 184 (47.9) 114 (39.6) 179 (42.4) 224 (42.2) 247 (43.9) 232 (47.2) 201 (50.5) 248 (69.5)  
 Ward 145 (37.8) 129 (44.8) 184 (43.6) 221 (41.6) 219 (38.9) 174 (35.4) 141 (35.4) 65 (18.2)  
 ICU 55 (14.3) 45 (15.6) 59 (14.0) 86 (16.2) 97 (17.2) 86 (17.5) 56 (14.1) 44 (12.3)  
  1. COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRF Chronic renal failure, ICU Intensive care unit
  2. aGeneral linear models