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Table 1 Patient characteristics (n = 135)

From: Cefepime-induced neurotoxicity: a systematic review

Characteristic Value
Median age (IQR) 69 years (54–75)
Sex (female), n (%) 69 (51%)
Pre-existing CNS disease, n (%) 11 (8%)
 Cerebral vascular disease 6 (4%)
 Encephalopathy 2 (1%)
 Othera 3 (2%)
Renal function dysfunction 108 (80%)
Creatinine clearance, median (IQR) 26.5 (17–56) ml/min
History of alcohol use disorder, n (%) 3 (2%)
Co-administered neurotoxic drug(s), n (%)b 21 (16%)
Patient location, n (%)
 ICU 60 (44%)
 Non-ICU 14 (10%)
 Unreported 61 (45%)
  1. CNS central nervous system
  2. aOther pre-existing CNS diseases included encephalitis, spina bifida, dementia
  3. bReported neurotoxic medications include amikacin, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, cytarabine, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, phenytoin