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Table 3 Summary of main results of primary and secondary outcomes

From: Levosimendan for patients with severely reduced left ventricular systolic function and/or low cardiac output syndrome undergoing cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Heterogeneity
Outcome analyzed Studies Patients OR or SMD (95% CI) p Value I 2 Statistic p Value
Mortality overall 6 1728 OR 0.64 (0.37, 1.11) 0.11 42% 0.12
Mortality in low LVEF 5 1224 OR 0.51 (0.32, 0.82) 0.005 0% 0.66
Need for RRT overall 6 1728 OR 0.63 (0.42, 0.94) 0.02 0% 0.91
Need for RRT in low LVEF 5 1224 OR 0.55 (0.31, 0.97) 0.04 0% 0.90
AF and SVT overall 5 1695 OR 0.62 (0.32, 1.18) 0.15 79% 0.0007
AF and SVT in low LVEF 4 1141 OR 0.52 (0.19, 1.40) 0.20 84% 0.0003
Myocardial damage overall 4 1645 OR 0.89 (0.52, 1.53) 0.68 29% 0.24
Myocardial damage in low LVEF 3 1141 OR 0.60 (0.15, 2.41) 0.47 53% 0.12
Mechanical support overall 6 1728 OR 0.38 (0.13, 1.10) 0.07 82% <0.0001
Mechanical support in low LVEF 5 1224 OR 0.29 (0.09, 1.00) 0.05 85% <0.0001
Hypotension overall 5 1695 OR 1.41 (0.92, 2.18) 0.12 0% 0.54
Hypotension in low LVEF 4 1191 OR 1.31 (0.82, 2.08) 0.26 0% 0.52
LCOS in low LVEF 4 1191 OR 0.55 (0.38, 0.79) 0.001 9% 0.35
AKI (risk, injury, failure of RIFLE criteria) 3 817 OR 0.64 (0.44, 0.94) 0.02 9% 0.33
Duration of MV overall 3 567 SMD −0.11 (−0.28, 0.05) 0.18 0% 0.61
ICU LOS overall 4 1419 SMD −0.41 (−0.83, 0.02) 0.06 89% <0.0001
ICU LOS in low LVEF 3 962 SMD −0.78 (−1.90, 0.34) 0.17 92% <0.0001
Hospital LOS overall 3 567 SMD −0.73 (−1.89, 0.43) 0.22 93% <0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: AF Atrial fibrillation, AKI Acute kidney injury, ICU Intensive care unit, LCOS Low cardiac output syndrome, LOS Length of stay, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, MV Mechanical ventilation, PICOS Population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study design, RIFLE Risk, injury, failure; loss, end-stage renal disease, RRT Renal replacement therapy, SMD Standard mean difference, SVT Supraventricular tachycardia
  2. Results are presented as OR or SMD, as appropriate, with 95% CI. Results presented in bold are statistically significant or with a trend toward statistically significant result