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Table 2 Population included in studies selected for meta-analysis

From: Levosimendan for patients with severely reduced left ventricular systolic function and/or low cardiac output syndrome undergoing cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, study [reference] Patients (n) and operations LVEF cutoffs Administration timing and dosages
Low LVEF only
 Erb et al., 2014 [19] 33 On-pump CABG (with or without valve) <30% Before incision 12.5-mg total dose at 0.1 μg∙kg−1∙minute−1
 Levin et al., 2012 [20] 252 On-pump CABG only <25% Preoperative 10-μg/kg bolus; 0.1 μg∙kg−1∙minute−1 for 23 h
 Mehta et al., 2017 [13] 849 On-pump cardiac surgery <35% Before incision 0.2 μg/kg/minute for 1 h; 0.1 μg∙kg−1∙minute−1 for 23 h
 Shah et al., 2014 [21] 50 Off-pump CABG only <30% Preoperative 0.133 μg∙kg−1∙minute−1 for 24 h
 Sharma et al., 2014 [22] 40 CABG and mitral valve repair <30% Preoperative 200 μg∙kg−1 for 24 h
 Lomivorotov et al., 2012a [17] 60 On-pump CABG only <35% Before incision 12-μg∙kg−1 bolus; 0.1 μg∙kg−1∙minute−1 for 24 h
LCOS only
Low LVEF and LCOS    
 Landoni et al., 2017 [14] 504 All cardiac surgery <25%/or LCOSb Mainly postoperativeb 0.05 μg∙kg−1∙minute−1 for 48 h or until ICU discharge
  1. Abbreviations: CABG Coronary artery bypass grafting, LCOS Low cardiac output syndrome, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction
  2. The studies are classified according to the subgroup of low LVEF and/or LCOS. We also report the number of patients in each study, the timing of levosimendan (placebo) administration, and the outcomes of interest of our meta-analysis reported by each study
  3. aThe study of Lomivorotov et al. [17] was a three-arm study with patients with low LVEF receiving preoperative levosimendan and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) vs levosimendan alone vs IABP alone. The data from the first two groups were included in a sensitivity analysis
  4. bIn this trial, only 4% of patients were randomized according to a preoperative low LVEF, 19% according to the need for IABP, 12% for difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, and 65% for postoperative LCOS