Skip to main content

Table 1 PICOS approach for selecting clinical studies in the systematic search

From: Levosimendan for patients with severely reduced left ventricular systolic function and/or low cardiac output syndrome undergoing cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

PICOS Criteria
1. Participants High-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery, defined by preoperative severely depressed LVEF (<35%) and/or intra-/postoperative LCOS
2. Intervention Levosimendan
3. Comparison Placebo
4. Outcomes Primary outcomes: mortality at longest follow-up, need for RRT Secondary outcomes: myocardial injury, supraventricular arrhythmias, acute kidney injury (risk, injury, or failure according to RIFLE criteria), duration of mechanical ventilation, development of LCOS (only for studies on preoperative severely depressed LVEF patients), intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay, adverse events, or hypotension during drug infusion
5. Study design Randomized controlled trials
  1. Abbreviations: LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, LCOS Low cardiac output syndrome, RIFLE Risk, injury, failure; loss, end-stage renal disease, RRT Renal replacement therapy, PICOS Population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study design