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Table 1 Summary of measurement properties of physical functioning instruments for the ICU

From: Evaluating physical functioning in critical care: considerations for clinical practice and research

Instrument name (range for score) Evidence of reliability? Evidence of validity? Evidence of predictive validity? Evidence of responsiveness? Evidence for MID? Evaluation of floor and ceiling effects?#
ACIF (0–1) Yes Construct validity: Yes Yes: for discharge to home No No Low floor and ceiling in ICU
CPAx (0–50) Yes Content validity: Yes
Construct validity: Yes
Yes: for discharge to home Yesa Yesa High floor at ICU admission; Low floor and ceiling at ICU and hospital dischargea
CcFROM (0–63) Yes Face/content validity: Yes No No No Low floor and ceiling in ICU
DEMMI (0–100) Yes Convergent validity: Yes
Divergent validity: Yes
No No No Low floor and ceiling in ICU
FSS-ICU (0–35) Yes Construct validity: Yes
Discriminant validity: Yes
Known groups validity: Yes
Yes: for discharge to home and post-ICU hospital LOSb Yes Yes Low floor and ceiling at awakening and ICU discharge, high ceiling at hospital discharge
IMS (0–10) Yes Construct validity: Yes
Divergent validity: Yes
Yes: for discharge to home and 90-day survivalb Yes No High floor at ICU admission; Low floor and ceiling at ICU awakening and ICU discharge
MMS (0–7) Yes Construct validity: Yes Yes: for post-ICU hospital LOS No No High floor during ICU stay
Perme (0–32) Yes Construct validity: Yes No No No High floor during ICU stay
PFIT-s (0–10) Yes Construct validity: Yes
Divergent validity: Yes
Yes: for discharge to home, post-ICU hospital LOS; Not predictive of 28-day and 12-month mortalityc Yes Yes High floor at ICU admission; Low floor and ceiling at awakening and ICU discharge
SOMS (0–4) Yes Construct validity: Yes
Divergent validity: Yes
Yes: for ICU and hospital LOS, and in-hospital mortalityd No No Low floor and ceiling at ICU admission
SPPB (0–12) No Construct validity: Yes
Divergent validity: Yes
Not predictive of discharge to homeb Yes Yes High floor at awakening and ICU discharge
  1. #A low floor and ceiling effect is necessary. A low floor/ceiling effect was defined as <15%, and high floor/ceiling effect as >15% at any time point [26]
  2. aThe MID has only been reported within the burns population for the CPAx; floor and ceiling effects have mainly been reported for the burns population. At ICU discharge the floor and ceiling effect was 13% and 0% in the burns population versus a floor and ceiling effect of 3% and 1% in a general ICU population
  3. bPredictive validity for FSS-ICU, IMS, and SPPB were evaluated from ICU discharge physical functioning scores
  4. cPredictive validity for PFIT-s were evaluated from ICU admission (scores evaluated a median of 6 days (range 5–9 days) after admission for all patient outcomes except discharge to home which has been evaluated across three time points: ICU admission, ICU awakening, and ICU discharge)
  5. dPredictive validity for SOMS was evaluated from baseline ICU admission scores
  6. ACIF Acute Care Index of Function, CPAx Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment Tool, CcFROM Critical Care Functional Rehabilitation Outcome Measure, DEMMI De Morton Mobility Index, FSS-ICU Functional Status Score for the ICU, ICU intensive care unit, IMS ICU mobility scale, LOS length of stay, MID minimal important difference, MMS, Perme Perme ICU Mobility Score, PFIT-s Physical Function in intensive care test scored, SOMS Surgical Optimal Mobility Scale, SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, MMS Manchester Mobility Score
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