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Table 2 Within- and between-region variation in first- and second-tier treatments for elevated intracranial pressure

From: Variation in monitoring and treatment policies for intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury: a survey in 66 neurotrauma centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study

Variable Northern Europe (n =9) Western Europe (n = 25) United Kingdom (n =7) Southern Europe (N =12) Baltic states (n = 5) Eastern Europe (n = 6) Israel (n = 2) Nagelkerke R 2 value
First-tier treatments
 Propofol 78% 76% 100% 92% 80% 67% 100% 0.14
 Midazolam 67% 76% 29% 75% 100% 83% 100% 0.22
 Fentanyl 44% 44% 29% 67% 100% 100% 50% 0.31
 Morphine 56% 48% 57% 50% 40% 33% 50% 0.02
 Neuromuscular blocking agents 0% 16% 29% 25% 40% 67% 50% 0.25
 α2-Agonists 33% 12% 0% 17% 40% 0% 0% 0.22
 Barbiturates 11% 8% 0% 0% 80% 83% 0% 0.63
 CSF drainage 33% 24% 0% 25% 60% 50% 0% 0.20
 Mannitol 11% 67% 43% 83% 100% 100% 100% 0.46
 Hypertonic saline 89% 71% 86% 58% 40% 33% 100% 0.20
Second-tier treatments
 Decompressive craniectomy 33% 36% 29% 33% 80% 33% 100% 0.16
 Hypothermia 22% 25% 71% 25% 0% 0% 0% 0.29
 Deep hyperventilation 0% 13% 0% 33% 20% 33% 0% 0.24
 Barbiturates 11% 29% 14% 33% 80% 67% 0% 0.25
 CSF drainage 56% 28% 43% 33% 20% 17% 50% 0.08
  1. CSF Cerebrospinal fluid
  2. Note. Table presents the percentage of participants within each geographic region that indicated that the first- or second-tier treatment was their general policy. Nagelkerke R 2 was derived from a logistic regression analysis with treatment (general policy yes/no) as the dependent variable and geographic region (categorical variable) as an independent variable. Nagelkerke R 2 represents the proportion of variance of the treatment variable that is accounted for by geographic region
  3. Northern Europe = Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark; Western Europe = Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, and The Netherlands; Southern Europe = Italy and Spain; Eastern Europe = Hungary, Romania, Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina; Baltic states = Latvia and Lithuania