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Table 1 Factors associated with an aggressive ICP management style

From: Variation in monitoring and treatment policies for intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury: a survey in 66 neurotrauma centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study

Factor Relatively aggressive centers (n = 32) Relatively conservative centers (n = 34) p Value
ICU organization    0.05
 Closed 17 (40%) 26 (60%)  
 Open/mixed 15 (65%) 8 (35%)  
Dedicated neurosciences ICU    0.96
 Available 19 (49%) 20 (51%)  
 Not available 13 (48%) 14 (52%)  
BTF guidelines useda    0.48
 Yes 25 (51%) 24 (49%)  
 No 7 (41%) 10 (59%)  
Volumeb    0.82
 High volume 17 (47%) 19 (53%)  
 Low volume 15 (50%) 15 (50%)  
Country’s income levelc    0.83
 High income 27 (49%) 28 (51%)  
 Relatively low income 5 (46%) 6 (54%)  
Geographic locationd    0.84
 Northern Europe 4 (44%) 5 (56%)  
 Western Europe 13 (52%) 15 (48%)  
 United Kingdom 3 (43%) 4 (57%)  
 Southern Europe 5 (42%) 7 (58%)  
 Baltic states 2 (40%) 3 (60%)  
 Eastern Europe 3 (50%) 3 (50%)  
 Israel 2 (100%) 0 (0%)  
  1. BTF Brain Trauma Foundation, ICU Intensive care unit
  2. a BTF guidelines or institutional guidelines that were broadly based on the BTF guidelines
  3. b Relatively high volume (number of patients with severe TBI admitted to the ICU higher than the median number of patients with severe TBI admitted to the ICU [n = 92]) vs. relatively low volume (number of patients with severe TBI admitted to the ICU lower than or equal to the median number of patients with severe TBI admitted to the ICU)
  4. c The division into relatively high- and low-income countries was based on a 2007 report by the European Union [21]. High income = Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and Switzerland; relatively low income = Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, and Serbia
  5. d Northern Europe = Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark; Western Europe = Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, and The Netherlands; Southern Europe = Italy and Spain; Eastern Europe = Hungary, Romania, Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina; Baltic states = Latvia and Lithuania