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Table 1 Main characteristics of the 11 studies included in the meta-analysis

From: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy is superior to conventional oxygen therapy but not to noninvasive mechanical ventilation on intubation rate: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Country Setting Study design Patients Control Duration (h) Primary outcomes Secondary outcomes
Intubation Mechanical ventilation Escalation Mortality
Bell N, 2015a [13] Australia ED Multi-centre Acute undifferentiated shortness of breath FM/nasal prongs 2 h Yes Yes Yes No
Corley A, 2015a [44] Australia ICU Multi-centre Post-extubation after cardiac surgery with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 FM/nasal cannula 24 h Yes Yes Yes No
Frat JP, 2015 [18] France ICU Multi-centre AHRF (without hypercapnia) FM/NIV 48 h Yes/yes Yes/- Yes/yes Yes/yes
Hernandez G1, 2016 [19] Spain ICU Multi-centre Post-extubation RF in low risk for reintubation FM/nasal cannula 24 h Yes Yes Yes Yes
Jones PG, 2015 [20] New Zealand ED Single-centre Hypoxia and tachypnea FM/nasal prongs 3 h Yes Yes Yes Yes
Lemiale V, 2015 [45]           
  France ICU Multi-centre Immunocompromised patients with AHRF FM 2 h Yes Yes Yes No
Maggiore SM, 2014 [21] Italy ICU Multi-centre Post-extubation ARF FM 48 h Yes Yes Yes Yes
Parke R, 2013a [22] New Zealand CVICU Single-centre Post-extubation after cardiac surgery FM/or nasal prongs 24 h Yes Yes Yes Yes
Parke R, 2011 [46] New Zealand CVICU Single-centre Mild to moderate AHRF FM 24 h _ Yes Yes No
Stephan F, 2015 [47] France CTVS ICU Multi-centre ARF after cardiothoracic surgery NIV Period of ICU stay Yes _ Yes Yes
Hernandez G2, 2016 [25] Spain ICU Multi-centre Post-extubation RF in high risk for reintubation NIV 24 h Yes _ Yes Yes
  1. CTVS cardiothoracic and vascular surgery, ICU intensive care units, CVICU cardiothoracic and vascular ICU, COT conventional oxygen therapy, NIV noninvasive mechanical ventilation, ED emergency department, BMI body mass index, AHRF acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, RF respiratory failure, FM face mask
  2. aIn these studies, the group of patients who received COT could be escalated to HFNC if necessary, whereas the other patients were not escalated to HFNC
  3. Hernandez G1 [19] 2016 and Hernandez G2 [25] 2016 were two articles from the same trial