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Table 1 Selected characteristics of studies included in the systematic review

From: Treatment of severe hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review of inclusion and judgment criteria used in randomized controlled trials

First author Year of publication Tested molecule Comparator Statistical design Blinded Causative pathogen Patients with VAP (ITT or mITT, %) Number of ITT patients Patient with positive respiratory samples (% of ITT/primary endpoint population) Mean age ± SDa Mean Apache II score ± SDa Duration of study therapy, (days) Cure rate (%) Mortality rate (%)
Jaccard 1998 Piperacillin/tazobactam Imipenem/cilastatin NM Yes All pathogens NM 154 81/81 59.7 ± 16.9 14.9 ± 6.8 7–14 77 8.4l
Brun-Buisson 1998 Piperacillin/tazobactam + amikacin Ceftazidim + amikacin Equivalence No All pathogens 100 204 62/100 55.5 ± 16 37.4 ± 1.4f 15–21 42 20i
Fagon 2000 Quinupristin/dalfopristin Vancomycin Equivalence No Only Gram-positive pathogens 70 304 73/100 57 ± 18 15 ± 6.9 5–14 44 23k
Torres 2000 Ciprofloxacin Imipenem/cilastatin NM No All pathogens NM 149 68/100 61 ± 16 13.8 ± 8 NM 68 16k
Alvarez-Lerma 2001 Piperacillin/tazobactam + amikacin Ceftazidim + amikacin Equivalence No All pathogens 85 124 56/64 59 ± 19 16.7 ± 6.5 NM 48 35k
Nicolau 2001 Continuous ceftazidime Intermittent ceftazidime NM No All pathogens 91 35 68/80 51 ± 18 14.5 ± 5.5 NM 37 NM
Rubinstein 2001 Linezolid Vancomycin Equivalence Yes All pathogens 63 396 42//NM 62 ± 18 15.5 ± 6.8 7 52 21k
Wunderlink 2003 Linezolid Vancomycin Equivalence Yes All pathogens 35 623 71//100 62.5 ± 19.1 14.1 ± 6 7–21 53 20j
Zanetti 2003 Cefepim Imipenem/cilastatin Non inferiority Yes All pathogens NM 209 NM/71 54 ± 18 15 ± 6.5 NM 39 22i
Shorr 2005 Levofloxacin Imipenem/cilastatin Non inferiority No All pathogens 100 222 >50/>50 53 ± 21 15 ± 14 NM 61 g NM
Joshi 2006 Piperacillin/tazobactam + tobramycin Imipenem/cilastatin + tobramycin Equivalence Yes All pathogens 69 437 92//100 52.3 ± 20 13.5 >5 53 NM
Schmidt 2006 Piperacillin/tazobactam Imipenem/cilastatin NM Yes All pathogens NM 221 100/100 67 ± 13.7 13.4 ± 4.2 5–21 68 g 13k
Betrosian 2008 Ampicillin-sulbactam Colistin NM No Acinetobacter baumanii 100 28 100/100 70 ± 7 14 ± 3.5 8–10 68 28h
Chastre 2008 Doripenem Imipenem/cilastatin Non inferiority No All pathogens 100 531 78/82 50,5 ± 19 RS 59 < 15 7–14 58 10h
Giamarallos-Bourboulls 2008 ATB + clarithromycin ATB + placebo NM yes All pathogens 100 200 100/100 58.4 ± 18.4 17 ± 6 NM 75 25i
Heyland 2008 Meropenem + ciprofloxacin Meropenem Superiority no All pathogens 100 740 82/82 59 ± 17.8 20 ± 6.3 NM NM 19h
Freire 2010 Tigecyclin Imipenem/cilastatin Non inferiority yes All pathogens 26.8 945 65/62 57.4 ± 18.6 RS 396 > 15 7–14 52 13k
Jung 2010 Vancomycin + rifampicin Vancomycin Superiority no Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 73 83 100/100 69 (28-98)b 24 (15–38)b 14 42 30h
Rattanaum-pawan 2010 ATB + nebulized colistimetate ATB + placebo Superiority no Only Gram-negative pathogens 100 102 100/100 68 ± 16.5 18.7 ± 5 NS 52 42h
Lu 2011 Nebulized ceftazidime + amikacin IV ceftazidim + amikacin NM No Pseudomonas aeruginosa 100 40 100/100 59 ± 16 33 ± 13f 8 72 18h
Rubinstein 2011 Telavancin Vancomycin Non inferiority Yes Only Gram-positive pathogens 28 1503 60/73 62 ± 18 15.5 ± 6.2 7–21 59 19h
Aydemir 2012 Colistin Colistin + rifampicin NM No Acinetobacter baumanii 100 43 100/100 61 ± 20 19.1 ± 6 NS 46 67k
Kollef 2012 Doripenem Imipenem Non inferiority Yes All pathogens 100 227 74/100 54.7 ± 17.6 RSe 7–10 52 18h
Wunderlink 2012 Linezolid Vancomycin Non inferiority Yes Staphylococcus aureus 63 448 100/100 61 ± 18 17 ± 6 7–14 50 16j
Ramirez 2013 Tigecyclin Low dose/Tigecyclin High dose Imipenem/cilastatin Non inferiority Yes All pathogens 39 105 63/71 62 ± 15 13.8 NS 59 16k
Awad 2014 Ceftobiprol medocaril Ceftazidim + vancomycin Non inferiority Yes All pathogens 27 781 69/NM RSc RSd 7–14 51 17i
Kollef 2016 Imipenem or meropenem + Nebulized amikacin and fosfomycin Imipenem or meropenem + placebo NM Yes Only Gram-negative pathogens 100 143 100/100 62 ± 11 18.4 ± 5.9 10 23 20
  1. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, ITT intention-to-treat, mITT microbiological ITT, NM not mentioned, RS reported by stratum only, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SD standard deviation, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia
  2. aAs provided in reports
  3. bMedian (range)
  4. c362 patients were >65 years old
  5. d205 patients had an APACHE II score >15
  6. e128 patients had an APACHE II score >15
  7. fMean ± SD SAPS
  8. gClinical success rate (include clinical cure and clinical improvement)
  9. hDay-28 mortality
  10. iDay-30 mortality
  11. jDay-60 mortality
  12. kMortality at the end of the study
  13. lInfection-related mortality