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Table 1 Definitions of terminology

From: How could we enhance translation of sepsis immunology to inform immunomodulation trials in sepsis?

Terminology Definition
Extreme phenotypes Subpopulations defined by extremes of clinical features and outcomes
Biomarker Characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention
Clinical outcome Characteristic that reflects how a patient feels, functions, or survives
Surrogate outcome Substitute for clinical endpoints (or outcome) and expected to predict clinical benefit or harm based on epidemiologic, therapeutic, pathophysiologic, or other scientific evidence
Precision medicine Refers to an approach for disease treatment and prevention that considers individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle
Heterogeneity The differences in the risk of developing sepsis, risk of suffering sepsis-related outcomes, and in treatment response
Treatable traits Selecting a patient population with a well-defined treatment response characteristic
  1. This is an original table produced by the author for the purposes of this article using references [3, 11]