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Table 1 Different classes of new cancer drugs, frequently used agents, and main toxicities

From: New drugs, new toxicities: severe side effects of modern targeted and immunotherapy of cancer and their management

Agent Target Indications Toxicities
Monoclonal antibodies
 Rituximab
 Ofatumumab
 Obinutuzumab
CD20 B-cell lymphomas and leukemias CRS
Immunodeficiency
 Trastuzumab HER2neu Breast cancer Cardiac disease
 Cetuximab EGFR Colorectal cancer Diarrhea
Exanthema
 Bevacizumab VEGF Colorectal cancer
Breast cancer
Renal cell cancer
NSCLC
Hypertension
GI bleeding or perforation
Thromboembolism
 Ramucirumab VEGFR Gastric cancer  
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
 Imatinib
 Dasatinib
BCR-ABL CML
ALL
Pleural/pericardial effusions
Pulmonary hypertension
 Ponatinib Thromboembolism
 Erlotinib EGFR NSCLC
Pancreatic cancer
Exanthema, diarrhea
GI bleeding or perforation
 Idelalisib PI3K B-cell lymphoma Pneumonitis
Colitis, hepatosis
 Trametinib MEK Melanoma Diarrhea, edema
Decrease of LVEF
 Aflibercept
 Axitinib
VEGF
VEGFR
Colorectal cancer
Renal cell cancer
Hypertension
GI bleeding or perforation
Thromboembolism
PRES
 Sorafenib
 Sunitinib
 Pazopanib
Multiple kinases Renal cell cancer
GIST
Soft tissue sarcoma
Decrease of LVEF
Hypertension
Bispecific antibodies (BAB)
 Blinatumomab CD3/CD19 ALL
B-cell lymphomas
CRS
Neurotoxicity (e.g., convulsions)
Liver toxicity (transaminitis)
Checkpoint inhibitors
 Ipilimumab CTLA-4 Melanoma IRAEs:
Diarrhea, colitis
Hypophysitis
Immunhepatitis
Polyarthritis
 Nivolumab Pembrolizumab PD-1 Melanoma
NSCLC
RCC
Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Cellular treatments
 CAR T cells CD19 ALL
B-cell lymphomas
CRS
Neurotoxicity (e.g., convulsions, encephalopathy, or ischemia)
  1. CRS cytokine-release syndrome, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, VEGFR vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, HER human epidermal growth factor receptor, GI gastrointestinal, NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer, RCC renal cell cancer, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, CML chronic myeloid leukemia, ALL acute lymphoblastic leukemia, EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor, PI3K phosphoinositol-3 kinase, MEK MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) kinase, PRES posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, GIST gastrointestinal stromal tumors, CTLA-4 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, PD-1 programmed death receptor 1, IRAEs immune-related adverse events, CAR chimeric antigen receptor